Years For Gen Z

Maria Johnson
• Sunday, 16 May, 2021
• 88 min read

Moreover, the negative effects of screen time are most pronounced on adolescents compared to younger children. They tend to live more slowly than their predecessors when they were their age, have lower rates of teenage pregnancies, and consume alcohol less often, but not necessarily addictive drugs.

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On the other hand, sexting among adolescents has grown in prevalence though the consequences of this remain poorly understood. Globally, there is evidence that the average age of pubertal onset among girls has decreased considerably compared to the twentieth century, with implications for their welfare and their future.

In addition, adolescents and young adults have higher rates of allergies, higher awareness and diagnoses of mental health problems, and are more likely to be sleep-deprived, In many countries, youths are more likely to have intellectual disabilities and psychiatric disorders than older people. Around the world, members of Generation Z are spending more time on their electronic devices and less time reading books than before, with implications for their attention span, their vocabulary, and thus their school grades as well as their future in the modern economy.

At the same time, reading and writing fan fiction is of vogue worldwide, especially among teenage girls and young women. In Asia, educators in the 2000s and 2010s typically sought out and nourished top students whereas in Western Europe and the United States, the emphasis was on low-performers.

The Pew Research Center surveyed the various names for this cohort on Google Trends in 2019 and found that in the U.S., the term “Generation Z was the most popular by far, so much so that the Merriam-Webster and Oxford dictionaries both have official entries for it. While there is no scientific process for deciding when a name has stuck, the momentum is clearly behind Gene.

Multiple people claimed to have coined the term generation (or gen). Rapper MC Lars is credited with using the term as early as 2003.

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Psychology professor and author Jean Twinge claims that the name gen “just popped into her head” while she was driving near Silicon Valley, and that she had intended to use it as the title of her 2006 book Generation Me about the Millennial generation, until it was overridden by her publisher. This emphasizes the shift from PC to mobile and text to video among the neo-digital population.

According to Dictionary.com's Slang Dictionary, “Boomer” is an informal term used to refer to members of Generation Z. Boomer, in its current incarnation, skyrocketed in popularity in 2018, when it was used in a 4chanInternet meme mocking Gene adolescents via a Kojak caricature dubbed a “Boomer” (a pun on the term boomer “).

The term “boomer” is modeled on “boomer” and is often used in an ironic, humorous, or mocking tone. Australia's McBride Research Center defines Generation Z as those born between 1995 and 2009, starting with a recorded rise in birth rates, and fitting their newer definition of a generational span with a maximum of 15 years.

Psychologist Jean Twinge defines the generation as those born 1995–2012. Dipsos MORE states that their official definition of Gene is anyone born from 1996.

Business Insider describes the cohort as born between 1996 and 2010, but refers to Pew Research Center's definition. The Pew Research Center defines Generation Z as people born from 1997 onward, choosing this date for “different formative experiences,” such as new technological developments and socioeconomic trends, including the widespread availability of wireless internet access and high-bandwidth cellular service, and key world events, including the September 11th terrorist attacks.

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News outlets such as the Harvard Business Review and BBC describe Generation Z as people born since 1997, and The New York Times and Reuters define Generation Z as people born after 1996. The Brookings Institution describes Gene as those born between 1997 and 2012, as does Bloomberg News, PBS, The Washington Post, The Wall Street Journal, The Guardian, Al Jazeera, the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, and The Irish Times.

In a 2018 report, the American Psychological Association describes Generation Z as “those between the ages of 15 and 21” at the time. In Japan, generations are defined by a ten-year span with “Neo-Digital Natives” beginning after 1996.

In 2016, the Parka Foundation and Populous conducted an international study examining the attitudes of over 20,000 people aged 15 to 21 in twenty countries: Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Israel, Italy, Japan, New Zealand, Nigeria, Russia, South Africa, South Korea, Turkey, the United Kingdom, and the United States. They found that youths were overall happy with the states of affairs in their personal lives (59%).

The most unhappy young people were from South Korea (29%) and Japan (28%) while the happiest hailed from Indonesia (90%) and Nigeria (78%) (see right). In order to determine the overall 'happiness score' for each country, researchers subtracted the percentage of people who said they were unhappy from that of those who said they were happy.

The most important sources of happiness were being physically and mentally healthy (94%), having a good relationship with one's family (92%), and one's friends (91%). In general, respondents who were younger and male tended to be happier.

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Nevertheless, it was a major source of happiness for youths from Indonesia (93%), Nigeria (86%), Turkey (71%), China and Brazil (both 70%). Top reasons for anxiety and stress were money (51%) and school (46%); social media and having access of basic resources (such as food and water) finished the list, both at 10%.

Concerns over food and water were most serious in China (19%), India (16%), and Indonesia (16%); young Indians were also more likely than average to report stress due to social media (19%). According to the aforementioned study by the Parka Foundation, most important personal values to these people were helping their families and themselves get ahead in life (both 27%), followed by honesty (26%).

Familial values were especially strong in South America (34%) while individualism and the entrepreneurial spirit proved popular in Africa (37%). People who influenced youths the most were parents (89%), friends (79%), and teachers (70%).

Celebrity culture was especially influential in China (60%) and Nigeria (71%) and particularly irrelevant in Argentina and Turkey (both 19%). For young people, the most important factors for their current or future careers were the possibility of honing their skills (24%), and income (23%) while the most unimportant factors were fame (3%) and whether the organization they worked for made a positive impact on the world (13%).

The most important factors for young people when thinking about their futures were their families (47%) and their health (21%); the welfare of world at large (4%) and their local communities (1%) bottomed the list. A 2019 study conducted by the online rental platform Nest pick considered 110 cities worldwide in regard to factors they believed were important to Generation Z, such as social equality, multiculturalism, and digitization, and found that overall, London, Stockholm, Los Angeles, Toronto, and New York City topped the list.

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Oslo, Bergen (both in Norway), Stockholm, Gothenburg, and Malmö (all from Sweden) were champions of gender equality, yet Seoul, London, Boston, Stockholm, and Los Angeles best met the digital wants of Generation Z. However, given that members of Generation Z tend to be financially pragmatic, all the aforementioned cities shared a common disadvantage: high costs of living.

Therefore, the Nest pick index for Generation Z could change in the upcoming years as these people grow older and have different priorities. Two young women viewing The Monarch of the Glen at the Scottish National Museum (2017).

Young people want museums and galleries to “modernize” and cater to their interests. During the 2000s and especially the 2010s, youth subcultures that were as influential as what existed during the late twentieth century became scarcer and quieter, at least in real life though not necessarily on the Internet, and more ridden with irony and self-consciousness thanks to awareness of incessant peer surveillance. Moreover, boundaries between the different youth subcultures appear to have been blurred, and nostalgic sentiments have risen.

In Germany, for instance, youths seem more interested in a more mainstream lifestyle with goals such as finishing school, owning a home in the suburbs, maintaining friendships and family relationships, and stable employment rather than popular culture, glamour, or consumerism. Regardless, in twenty-first-century society, there are inevitably people who refuse to conform to the dominant culture and seek to do the exact opposite; given enough time, the anti-conformists will become more homogeneous with respect to their own subculture, making their behavior the opposite to any claims of counterculture.

Mathematician Jonathan Tubful of Brandeis University who studies how information propagation through society affects human behavior calls this the hipster effect. A survey conducted by Overall found that while museums and heritage sites continued to be popular among Britons between the ages of 18 and 30, 19% did not visit one in the previous year.

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Many youths nowadays preferred staying home and watching television or browsing social media networks to visiting museums or galleries. The researchers also found that cheaper tickets, more interactive exhibitions, greater variety of events, more food and beverage options, more convenient opening hours, and greater online presence could attract the attention of more young people.

On the other hand, vintage fashion is growing in popularity among Millennial and Generation- Z consumers. Digital technology has had a great impact upon the English language, observed the Oxford English Dictionary, as can be seen from the words coined and popularized during the early twenty-first century, such as Blu-ray (2001), selfies (2002), sexting (2005), glitterati (2006), YouTubers (2006), hashtag (2007), binge-watching (2007), and selfie stick (2012).

A 2019 report by Child wise found that among children between the ages of five and sixteen in the U.K. spent an average of three hours each day online. YouTube and Snapchat are the most popular gateways for music and video discovery.

Child wise also found that certain television series aired between the 1990s and early 2000s, such as Friends, proved popular among young people of the 2010s. Popular franchises such as Doctor Who have inspired numerous fan-fiction stories written mostly by young female authors. Figures from Nielsen and Magma Global revealed that the viewership of children's cable television channels such as Disney's Channels, Cartoon Network, and Nickelodeon continued their steady decline from the early 2010s, with little to no alleviating effects due to the COVID-19 pandemic, which forced many parents and their children to stay at home.

On the other hand, streaming services saw healthy growth. Disney's Channels in particular lost a third of their viewers in 2020, leading to closures in Scandinavia, the United Kingdom, Australia, and Southeast Asia.

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During the first two decades of the twenty-first century, writing and reading fan fiction became a prevalent activity worldwide. Demographic data from various depositories revealed that those who read and wrote fan fiction were overwhelmingly young, in their teens and twenties, and female.

For example, an analysis published in 2019 by data scientists Cecilia Aragon and Katie Davis of the site fan fiction.net showed that some 60 billion words of contents were added during the previous 20 years by 10 million English-speaking people whose median age was 15½ years. Fan-fiction writers base their work on various internationally popular cultural phenomena such as K-pop, Star Trek, Harry Potter, Doctor Who, and My Little Pony, known as canon ', as well as other things they considered important to their lives, like natural disasters.

Aragon and Davis argued that writing fan-fiction stories could help young people combat social isolation and hone their writing skills outside of school in an environment of like-minded people where they can receive (anonymous) constructive feedback, what they call 'distributed mentoring'. Informatics specialist Rebecca Black added that fan-fiction writing could also be a useful resource for English-language learners.

Indeed, the analysis of Aragon and Davis showed that for every 650 reviews a fan-fiction writer receives, his or her vocabulary improved by one year of age, though this may not generalize to older cohorts. On the other hand, children browsing fan-fiction contents might be exposed to cyber-bullying, crude comments, and other inappropriate materials.

According to Girls Gene Digital media company Sweet High's 2018 Gene Music Consumption & Spending Report, Spotify ranked first for music listening among Gene, terrestrial radio ranked second, while YouTube was reported to be the preferred platform for music discovery. Using artificial intelligence, Joan Serra and his team at the Spanish National Research Council studied the massive Million Song Dataset and found that between 1955 and 2010, popular music has gotten louder, while the chords, melodies, and types of sounds used have become increasingly homogenized.

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Indeed, producers seem to be engaging in a Loudness War, ” with the intention of attracting more and more audience members. Old hits are re-recorded with simpler chord progression and increased loudness using different instruments to sound new and fashionable.

While the music industry has long been accused of producing songs that are louder and blander, this is the first time the quality of songs is comprehensively studied and measured. Additional research showed that within the past few decades, popular music has gotten slower; that majorities of listeners young and old preferred older songs rather than keeping up with new ones; that the language of popular songs was becoming more negative psychologically; and that lyrics were becoming simpler and more repetitive, approaching one-word sheets, something measurable by observing how efficiently lossless compression algorithms (such as the LA algorithm) handled them.

Members of Generation Z are heavy users of electronic gadgets. In New Zealand, child development psychologist Tom Nicholson noted a marked decline in vocabulary usage and reading among schoolchildren, many of whom reluctant to use the dictionary.

According to a 2008 survey by the National Education Monitoring Project, about one in five four-year and eight-year pupils read books as a hobby, a ten-percent drop from 2000. In the United Kingdom, a survey of 2,000 parents and children from 2013 by Nielsen Book found that 36% of children read books for pleasure on a daily basis, 60% on a weekly basis, and 72% were read to by their parents at least once per week.

Among British children, the most popular leisure activities were watching television (36%), reading (32%), social networking (20%), watching YouTube videos (17%) and playing games on mobile phones (16%). Among children between the ages of 11 and 17, the share of non-readers grew from 13% to 27% between 2012 and 2013, those who read once to thrice a month (occasional readers) dropped from 45% to 38%, those who read for no more than an average of 15 minutes per week (light readers) rose from 23% to 27%, those who read between 15 and 45 minutes per week (medium readers) declined from 23% to 17%, and those who read at least 45 minutes a week (heavy readers) grew slightly from 15% to 16%.

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A survey by the National Literacy Trust from 2019 showed that only 26% of people below the age of 18 spent at least some time each day reading, the lowest level since records began in 2005. One in three children reported having trouble finding something interesting to read.

The aforementioned Nielsen Book survey found that the share of British households with at least one electronic tablet rose from 24% to 50% between 2012 and 2013. According to a 2020 Child wise report based on interviews with 2,200 British children between the ages of five and sixteen, young people today are highly dependent on their mobile phones.

In the United States, a research team headed by psychologist Jean Twinge analyzed data sets from Monitoring the Future, an ongoing survey of a nationally representative sample of 50,000 teenagers each year from grades eight, ten, and twelve, from 1976 to 2016, for a grand total of N=1,021,209{\display style N=1,021,209}, with 51% being female. Twelfth-graders spent a grand total of six hours each day texting, social networking, or gaming in the mid-2010s.

Gaps along sexual, racial, or socioeconomic lines were statistically insignificant. This secular decline in leisure reading came as a surprise for the researchers because “It's so convenient to read books and magazines on electronic devices like tablets.

Generation Z still wants to travel, despite the COVID-19 pandemic and the recession it induced. A 2020 survey conducted by The Center for Generational Kinetics on a thousand members of Generation Z and a thousand Millennials for comparison suggests that the former cohort would still like to travel, despite the COVID-19 pandemic and the recession it induced. However, Generation Z is more likely to look carefully for package deals that would bring them the most value for their money, as many of them are already saving money for buying a house and for retirement, and they prefer more physically active trips.

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However, unlike the Millennials, Generation Z typically have little to no memory of the 9/11 terrorist attacks. Since the oldest members were not yet cognizant when the 9/11 attacks occurred (or had not yet been born at that time), there is no generational memory of a time the United States has not been at war with the loosely defined forces of global terrorism.

Psychologist Anthony Turner suggests it is likely that both events have resulted in a feeling of settlement and insecurity among the people of Generation Z with the environment in which they were being raised. The economic recession of 2008 is particularly important to historical events that have shaped Generation Z, due to the ways in which their childhoods may have been affected by the recession's financial stresses felt by their parents.

A 2013 survey by Ameliorate found that 47% in the United States (considered here to be those between the ages of 14 and 23) were concerned about student debt, while 36% were worried about being able to afford a college education at all. This generation is faced with a growing income gap and a shrinking middle-class, which all have led to increasing stress levels in families.

But the share of individuals with such a condition in low- to middle-income countries were up to twice as high as their wealthier counterparts because they lacked the sources needed to tackle the problem, such as preventing children from being born with ID due to hereditary conditions with antenatal genetic screening, poor child and maternal care facilities, and inadequate nutrition, leading to, for instance, iodine deficiency. The researchers also found that ID was more common among children and adolescents than adults.

A 2020 literature review and meta-analysis confirmed that the incidence of ID was indeed more common than estimates from the early 2000s. In 2013, a team of neuroscientists from the University College London published a paper on how neurodevelopmental disorders can affect a child's educational outcome.

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They found that up to 10% of the human population suffer from specific learning disabilities, or about two to three children in a (Western) classroom. They are caused by abnormal brain development due to complicated environmental and genetic factors.

A child may suffer from multiple learning disorders at the same time. Normal or high levels of intelligence offer no protection.

Each child has a unique cognitive and genetic profile and would benefit from a flexible education system. A 2017 study from the Dominican Republic suggests that students from all sectors of the educational system utilize the Internet for academic purposes, yet those from lower socioeconomic backgrounds tend to rank the lowest in terms of reading comprehension skills.

A 2020 report by psychologist John Rothko analyzed over 30 studies and found that children have become better at delaying gratification over the previous 50 years, corresponding to an average increase of 0.18 standard deviations per decade on the IQ scale. This is contrary to opinion the majority of the 260 cognitive experts polled (84%), who thought this ability was deteriorating.

The ability to delay gratification is associated with positive life outcomes, such as better academic performance, lower rates of substance abuse, and healthier body weights. Possible reasons for improvements in the delaying gratification include higher standards of living, better-educated parents, improved nutrition, higher preschool attendance rates, more test awareness, and environmental or genetic changes.

This development does not mean that children from the early twentieth century were worse at delaying gratification and those from late twenty-first will be better at it, however. Moreover, some other cognitive abilities, such as simple reaction time, color acuity, working memory, complexity of vocabulary usage, and three-dimensional visuospatial reasoning have shown signs of secular decline.

In Australia and France, the data remained ambiguous; more research was needed. In the United Kingdom, young children suffered a decline in the ability to perceive weight and heaviness, with heavy losses among top scorers.

In the Netherlands, preschoolers and perhaps schoolchildren stagnated (but seniors gained) in cognitive skills. What this means is that people were gradually moving away from abstraction to concrete thought.

On the other hand, the United States continued its historic march towards higher IQ, a rate of 0.38 per decade, at least up until 2014. South Korea saw its IQ scores growing at twice the average U.S. rate.

The secular decline of cognitive abilities observed in many developed countries might be caused by diminishing marginal returns due to industrialization and to intellectually stimulating environments for preschoolers, the cultural shifts that led to frequent use of electronic devices, the fall in cognitively demanding tasks in the job market in contrast to the twentieth century, and possibly dyslexic fertility. Educational psychologist Hyung He Kim reached this conclusion after analyzing data samples of kindergartens to high-school students and adults in 1974, 1984, 1990, and 2008, a grand total of 272,599 individuals.

Previously, U.S. educational success was attributed to the encouragement of creative thinking, something education reformers in China, Taiwan, South Korea, and Japan sought to replicate. But U.S. educators decided to go in the opposite direction, emphasizing standardization and test scores at the expense of creativity.

On the parenting side, given children little play time and letting them spend large amounts of time in front of a screen likely contributed to the trend. Creativity has real-life consequences not just in the arts but also in academia and in life outcomes.

The youth bulge is evident in parts of Southeast Asia, the Middle East, Africa, and Latin America. Statistical projections from the United Nations in 2019 suggest that, by 2020, the people of Niger would have a median age of 15.2, Mali 16.3, Chad 16.6, Somalia, Uganda, and Angola all 16.7, the Democratic Republic of the Congo 17.0, Burundi 17.3, Mozambique and Zambia both 17.6.

(This means that more than half of their populations were born in the first two decades of the twenty-first century.) While a booming population can induce substantial economic growth, if healthcare, education, and economic needs were not met, there would be chronic youth unemployment, low productivity, and social unrest.

Investing in human capital is crucial in the formation of a productive society. Population pyramid of China in 2016China's fertility rate dropped from 5.91 children per woman in 1967 to 1.6 in 2012.

According to the Chinese Central Government, the one-child policy prevented approximately 400 million births. Some argue that such a drop in fertility is typical for a rapidly industrializing country while others believe it actually accelerates the aging process.

According to demographer Then Binmen of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, China's labor force would peak in 2015. UN figures show that China's ratio of people aged 60 and over increased 3.8% between 2000 and 2010, higher than the global average of 3% between 1950 and 2010.

The nation's quickly growing and export-driven economy will slow down, as the advantage of abundant and cheap labor fades away. Life expectancy in China rose from 43 in 1960 to 73 in 2010, thanks to improved standards of living, better nutrition, and access to healthcare and education.

As a result of cultural ideals, government policy, and modern medicine, there have been severe gender imbalances in China and India. Together, China and India had a combined 50 million of excess males under the age of 20.

Such a discrepancy fuels loneliness epidemics, human trafficking (from elsewhere in Asia, such as Cambodia and Vietnam), and prostitution, among other societal problems. Like the European Union (and unlike the United States), Japan has a declining population.

Coupled with an exceptionally long life expectancy (85 years for women and 78 for men, as of 2005) and one of the lowest fertility rates in the world, this means that by 2050, 30% of Japanese will be over the age of 60. While the government has been introducing various incentives for people to have more children, no return on investment could be expected till the 2030s, when the children born in the early 2000s enter the workforce.

According to official figures, the number of individuals below 15 years of age in Japan was 13.6% of the population in 2007 and was predicted to fall to 12.3% in 2015, or about half that of the elderly. 2007 was the twenty-sixth consecutive year in which the number of people under the age of 15 dropped in Japan.

Japan's birth rate fell from roughly replacement level, 2.1, in the early 1970s to 1.26 in 2005. Singapore's birth rate has fallen below the replacement level of 2.1 since the 1980s before stabilizing during the 2000s and 2010s.

) Government incentives such as the baby bonus have proven insufficient to raise the birth rate. Singapore's experience mirrors those of Japan and South Korea.

In Taiwan, the average reported ideal family size among women aged 18 to 24 dropped from 2.1 in 1991 to 1.8 in 2003. European countries by proportions of people aged 65 and over between 2008 and 2018From about 1750 to 1950, Western Europe transitioned from having both high birth and death rates to having low birth and death rates.

By the late 1960s or 1970s, the average woman had fewer than two children, and, although demographers at first expected a “correction,” such a rebound never came. Despite a bump in the total fertility rates (TFR) of some European countries in the very late twentieth century (the 1980s and 1990s), especially France and Scandinavia, they never returned to replacement level; the bump was largely due to older women realizing their dreams of motherhood.

At first, falling fertility is due to urbanization and decreased infant mortality rates, which diminished the benefits and increased the costs of raising children. In other words, it became more economically sensible to invest more in fewer children, as economist Gary Becker argued.

By the 1960s, people began moving from traditional and communal values towards more expressive and individualistic outlooks due to access to and aspiration of higher education, and to the spread of lifestyle values once practiced only by a tiny minority of cultural elites. Such changes in values have had a major effect on fertility that cemented itself in subsequent demographic cohorts.

Member states of the European Community saw a steady increase in not just divorce and out-of-wedlock births between 1960 and 1985 but also falling fertility rates. In 1981, a survey of countries across the industrialized world found that while more than half of people aged 65 and over thought that women needed children to be fulfilled, only 35% of those between the ages of 15 to 24 (younger Baby Boomers and older Generation X) agreed.

By the early 2000s, the average reported ideal family size among German-speaking countries has fallen to 1.7, well below the replacement level. Low levels of interest in reproduction is more pronounced among the economically advantaged, in contrast to earlier times, when wealth was correlated with fertility.

At the same time, France and Scandinavia retained high fertility rates compared to other developed countries, especially Southern Europe and East Asia. At first sight, it appears that this might be due to their socially progressive values and policies, i.e. making it easier for women to pursue both their careers and reproductive dreams.

However, closer scrutiny suggests the argument that “feminism is the new pro-natalism” is untenable, given that there are socially progressive countries with low fertility rates such as Austria and Canada on one hand, and more conservative and traditionalist countries with high fertility rates such as Ireland and the United States on the other. This problem is especially acute in the East whereas in the West, it is alleviated by international immigration.

In addition, an increasing number of children born in Europe has been to non-European parents. Because children of immigrants in Europe tend to be about as religious as they are, this could slow the decline of religion (or the growth of secularism) in the continent as the twenty-first century progresses.

In the United Kingdom, the number of foreign-born residents stood at 6% of the population in 1991. Researches by the demographers and political scientists Eric Kaufmann, Roger Eat well, and Matthew Goodwin suggest that such a fast ethno-demographic change is one of the key reasons behind public backlash in the form of nationalist populist revolts against the political establishment across the rich liberal democracies, an example of which being the Brexit Referendum in 2016.

Italy is a country where the problem of an aging population is especially acute. Quite the contrary, having a lot of children is an Italian ideal.

Another solution is immigration, which has been alleviating the decline, but it does not come without political backlash. Greece also suffers from a serious demographic problem as many young people are leaving the country in search of better opportunities elsewhere.

This brain drain and a rapidly aging population could spell disaster for the country. Russia has a falling birth rate and a declining population despite having an improving economy after the collapse of the Soviet Union.

According to the United Nations, Russia's population could fall by as much as one third by 2050. Russian government statisticians estimated in 2005 that a boy born in their country that year has a slim chance of seeing his 60th birthday due to various lifestyle-related problems (such as alcoholism).

A gap in life expectancy between the West and Russia started becoming noticeable in the 1960s. In the United Kingdom, even though the completed fertility rate changed little, the average age at first birth was increasing during the early 2000s.

According to the Royal College of Midwives, this was the main reason why the proportion of births requiring labor inductions or Cesarean sections increased from 31% to 50%. According to Statistics Canada, between 1980 and 2009, the frequency of the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) dropped from one per a thousand live births to 0.3, a 71% reduction.

According to Statistics Canada, the number of households with both grandparents and grandchildren remained rare but has been growing. In 2011, five percent of Canadian children below the age of ten lived with a grandparent, up from 3.3% in the previous decade.

This is in part because Canadian parents in early twenty-first century cannot (or think they cannot) afford childcare and often find themselves having to work long hours or irregular shifts. Meanwhile, many grandparents struggle to keep up with their highly active grandchildren on a regular basis due to their age.

Between grandparents and parents, potential sources of friction include the diets of the children, their sleep schedule, how to discipline them, and how they may use electronic gadgets. Because Millennials and members of Generation X tend to have fewer children than their parents the Baby Boomers, each child typically receives more attention his or her grandparents and parents compared to previous generations.

In the United States, at the urging of President Lyndon B. Johnson, Congress passed the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 (also known as the Hart-Celler Act), which abolished national quotas for immigrants and replaced it with a system that admits a fixed number of persons per year based in qualities such as skills and the need for refuge. During the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, most immigrants to the United States had come from Europe, but by the late 1990s and early 2000s, Asia and Latin America became the top sources of immigrants to the nation.

A report by demographer William Frey of the Brookings Institution stated that in the United States, the Millennials are a bridge between the largely Caucasian pre-Millennials (Generation X and their predecessors) and the more diverse post-Millennials (Generation Z and their successors). Frey's analysis of U.S. Census data suggests that as of 2019, 50.9% of Generation Z is white, 13.8% is black, 25.0% Hispanic, and 5.3% Asian.

As of 2019, 13.7% of the U.S. population is foreign-born, compared to 9.7% in 1997, when the first members of Generation Z had their birth cries. According to the Census Bureau, the number of people of mixed heritage has risen significantly between 2000 and 2010.

Frey's research also suggests that at the national level, Hispanics and Asians are the fastest growing racial minority groups in the United States while the number of Caucasians under the age of 18 has been declining since 2000. This demographic change could have social, cultural, and political implications for the decades ahead.

Members of Generation Z are slightly less likely to be foreign born than Millennials; the fact that more American Latinos were born in the U.S. rather than abroad plays a role in making the first wave of Generation Z appear better educated than their predecessors. However, researchers warn that this trend could be altered by changing immigration patterns and the younger members of Generation Z choosing alternate educational paths.

As a demographic cohort, Generation Z is smaller than the Baby Boomers and their children, the Millennials. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, Generation Z makes up about one quarter of the U.S. population, as of 2015.

Provisional data from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention reveal that U.S. fertility rates have fallen below the replacement level of 2.1 since 1971. There was an 'echo boom' in the 2000s, which certainly increased the absolute number of future young adults, but did not significantly change the relative sizes of this cohort compared to their parents.

The fertility rate of Mexico, once among the highest in the world, was approximately at replacement level in 2010, down from almost seven in 1960. This is due to government birth control policies dating back to the 1970s that made heavy use of sterilization in a country with stringent abortion restrictions except in the capital.

Women's increased participation in the workforce and improved educational opportunities also played a role in this development. Although the number of new Mexicans each year in the 2000s was the same as those from the 1970s, the rate of growth has slowed substantially.

For comparison, Europe took a century rather than 30 years to make the same demographic transition. Mexicans living in the United States had a higher fertility rate than their counterparts in the old country, however, and this means that the number of people of Mexican heritage would continue to grow North of the border.

Population pyramid of Australia in 2016Australia's total fertility rate has fallen from above three in the post-war era, to about replacement level (2.1) in the 1970s to below that in the late 2010s. In the 2010s, among the residents of Australia, 5% were born in the United Kingdom, 2.5% from China, 2.2% from India, and 1.1% from the Philippines.

“The older the population is, the more people are on welfare benefits, we need more health care, and there's a smaller base to pay the taxes,” Ian Harper of the Melbourne Business School told ABC News (Australia). While the government has scaled back plans to increase the retirement age, to cut pensions, and to raise taxes due to public opposition, demographic pressures continue to mount as the buffering effects of immigration are fading away.

Australians coming of age in the early twenty-first century are more reluctant to have children compared to their predecessors due to economic reasons: higher student debt, expensive housing, and negative income growth. Enrollment in primary schools in developing countries has been rising steadily since the mid-twentieth century.

By the 1990s and 2000s, primary-school enrollment rates in these countries approached 100%, sitting just below those of the developed world. According to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), countries spent an average of US$10,759 educating their children from primary school to university in 2014.

Over 600,000 students between the ages of eight and nine from 49 countries and territories took part in the 2015 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMES). The highest-scoring students in mathematics hailed from Singapore, Hong Kong, South Korea, Taiwan, and Japan.

In particular, the gap between the lowest scoring East Asian country (Japan, at 593) was 23 points higher than the next nation (Northern Ireland, at 570), which was unchanged from 2011. In science, the top scorers were from Singapore, South Korea, Japan, Russia, and Hong Kong.

The OECD-sponsored Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) is administered every three years to fifteen-year-old schoolchildren around the world on reading comprehension, mathematics, and science. Students with the highest average scores in mathematics came from Singapore, Hong Kong, Macao, Taiwan, and Japan; in science from Singapore, Japan, Estonia, Taiwan, and Finland; and in reading from Singapore, Hong Kong, Canada, Finland, and Ireland.

In 2019, the OECD surveyed educational standards and achievement of its 36 member states and found that while education spending has gone up by an average of 15% over the previous decade, academic performance of 15-year-old students in reading, mathematics, and science on the PISA has largely stagnated. Students from China and Singapore, both outside of the OECD, continued to outclass their global peers.

Among all the countries that sent their students to take the PISA, only Albania, Colombia, Macao, Moldova, Peru, Portugal, and Qatar saw any improvements since joining. Meanwhile, Australia, Finland, Iceland, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Slovakia, and South Korea all saw a decline in overall performance since joining.

Estonia spent 30% below the OECD average yet still achieved top marks. Socioeconomic background is a key factor in academic success in the OECD, with students coming from families in the top 10% of the income distribution being three years ahead in reading skills compared to those from the bottom 10%.

However, the link between background and performance was weakest in Australia, Canada, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Japan, Norway, South Korea, and the United Kingdom, meaning these countries have the most equitable education systems. A proposed method of assessing the equality of educational opportunities in a given society is to measure the heritability of academic ability as empirical evidence does support the hypothesis that the heritability of test results is higher in a country with a national curriculum compared to one with a decentralized system; having a national curriculum aimed at equality reduces environmental influences.

A 2020 exam session at the Cole Poly technique, Paris, France. COVID-19 has disrupted education worldwide. The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted the education of around one and a half billion students as schools in 165 countries closed their doors and 60 million teachers were sent home, according to UNESCO.

A number of countries tackled the problem by expanding access to the Internet in remote areas or broadcasting more educational materials on national television. During the 2000s and 2010s, whereas the Middle East and East Asia (especially China, Hong Kong, and South Korea) and Singapore actively sought them out and steered them towards top programs, Europe and the United States had in mind the goal of inclusion and chose to focus on helping to struggle students.

In 2010, for example, China unveiled a decade-long National Talent Development Plan to identify able students and guide them into STEM fields and careers in high demand; that same year, England dismantled its National Academy for Gifted and Talented Youth and redirected the funds to help low-scoring students get admitted to elite universities. Developmental cognitive psychologist David Gear observed that Western educators remained “resistant” to the possibility that even the most talented of schoolchildren needed encouragement and support and tended to concentrate on low performers.

In addition, even though it is commonly believed that past a certain IQ benchmark (typically 120), practice becomes much more important than cognitive abilities in mastering new knowledge, recently published research papers based on longitudinal studies, such as the Study of Mathematically Precocious Youth (SPY) and the Duke University Talent Identification Program, suggest otherwise. Since the early 2000s, the number of students from emerging economies going abroad for higher education has risen markedly.

This was a golden age of growth for many Western universities admitting international students. In the late 2010s, around five million students trotted the globe each year for higher education, with the developed world being the most popular destinations and China the biggest source of international students.

But as relations between the West and China soured and because of the COVID-19 pandemic, Western universities saw their revenue from foreign students plummet and will have to reconfigure themselves in order to survive. Government assistance might not be available due to the strained ties between universities and many politicians, who are skeptical of the value of higher education because even though admissions has boomed, productivity growth as slowed.

Moreover, political battles in the West are increasingly fought between those who have university degrees and those who do not. In any case, universities that are highly dependent on revenue for foreign students face the possibility of bankruptcy.

For information on public support for higher education (for domestic students) in various countries in 2019, see chart below. In South Korea, teaching is a prestigious and rewarding and the education system is highly centralized and focused on testing.

Similarly, in Singapore, becoming a teacher is by no means an easy task and the nation's education system is also centrally managed. In Finland, during the 2010s, it was extremely difficult to become a schoolteacher, as admissions rates for a teacher's training program were even lower than for programs in law or medicine.

The H-bar Physics Building of the Paris-Saclay University in May 2020According to the 2015 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMES), French students scored last in mathematics and next-to-last in science when compared to other member states of the European Union. French fourth graders (students aged eight to nine) scored an average of 488 points in mathematics and 487 in science, compared to the E.U.

Internationally, France ranked in 35th place out of the 49 participant countries and territories. French mediocrity in mathematics at the level of grade school notwithstanding, the situation in higher education and research was a revelation, as can be seen in the number of Fields Medal its the nation has produced, which is more than any other country except the United States.

It is dedicated to science and is intended to be what President Emmanuel Macron called the “MIT à la franchise. “ Although the French were previously indifferent towards international rankings of universities, Paris-Saclay is, as of 2020, one of the best in the world, especially in mathematics.

In France, while year-long mandatory military service for men was abolished in 1996 by President Jacques Chirac, who wanted to build a professional all-volunteer military, all citizens between 17 and 25 years of age must still participate in the Defense and Citizenship Day (LAPD), when they are introduced to the French Armed Forces, and take language tests. In 2019, President Macron introduced something similar to mandatory military service, but for teenagers, as promised during his presidential campaign.

While students will not have to shave their heads or handle military equipment, they will have to sleep in tents, get up early (at 6:30 am), participate in various physical activities, raise the tricolor, and sing the national anthem. They will have to wear a uniform, though it is more akin to the outfit of security guards rather than military personnel.

In the first two, youths learn how to provide first aid, how navigating with a map, how to recognize fake news, emergency responses for various scenarios, and self-defense. In addition, they get health checks and get tested on their mastery of the French language, and they participate in debates on a variety of social issues, including environmentalism, state secularism, and gender equality.

The aim of this program is to promote national cohesion and patriotism, at a time of deep division on religious and political grounds, to get people out of their neighborhoods and regions, and mix people of different socioeconomic classes, something mandatory military service used to do. Supporters thought that teenagers rarely raise the national flag, spend too much time on their phones, and felt nostalgic for the era of compulsory military service, considered a rite of passage for young men and a tool of character-building.

The SNU is projected to affect some 800,000 French citizens each year when it becomes mandatory for all aged 16 to 21 by 2026, at a cost of some €1.6 billion. Another major concern is that it will overburden the French military, already stretched thin by counter-terrorism campaigns at home and abroad.

A 2015 IFOP poll revealed that 80% of the French people supported some kind of mandatory service, military, or civilian. At the same time, returning to conscription was also popular; supporters included 90% of the UMP party, 89% of the National Front (now the National Rally), 71% of the Socialist Party, and 67% of people aged 18 to 24.

This poll was conducted after the Charlie Hebdo terrorist attacks. 1909 illustration of Macbeth by Arthur Rack ham for Charles and Mary Lamb's Tales from Shakespeare.

Many British schoolboys struggled with English classics including the works of Shakespeare. In the early 2010s, British schoolboys found themselves falling behind girls in reading comprehension. Previous research suggests this is due to the general tendency of boys not receiving a lot of encouragement in voluntary reading.

Teachers noticed that secondary schoolboys struggled to carry on reading. Almost a third reported that boys lost interest on the cover if the book had more than 200 pages.

English-language literary classics most unpopular among boys included the novels of Jane Austen, the plays of William Shakespeare (especially Macbeth, The Tempest, and A Midsummer Night's Dream), and John Steinbeck's Of Mice and Men. 69% of British primary schoolteachers and 60% of secondary schoolteachers reported in 2018 they saw a growing frequency of substandard vocabulary levels in their students of all ages, leading to not just low self-esteem and various other behavioral and social problems, but also to greater difficulty in courses such as English and history and in important exams such as the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE), a set of school-leaving exams required for 16-year-olds.

In 2017, almost half of Britons have received higher education by the age of 30. Prime Minister Tony Blair introduced the goal of having half of young Britons earning a university degree in 1999, though he missed the 2010 deadline.

Blair did not take into account the historical reality that an oversupply of young people with high levels of education precipitated periods of political instability and unrest in various societies, from early modern Western Europe and late Tokugawa Japan to the Soviet Union, modern Iran, and the United States. Quantitative historian Peter Urchin termed this elite overproduction.

Urchin estimated that 30% of British university graduates were overqualified given the requirements of their jobs while the Institute for Fiscal Studies (IFS) reckoned that one out of five graduates would have been better off had they not gone to university. The IFS also warned that 13 British universities risked bankruptcy as admissions fall precipitously due to the COVID-19 pandemic.

Normally, admissions rise in during an economic recession as people seek to enhance their competitiveness in the workforce, but this did not happen with the one induced by the pandemic due to requirements of social distancing and the availability of online classes. Prime Minister Boris Johnson has made the case for better vocational training.

“We need to recognize that a significant and growing minority of young people leave university and work in a non-graduate job,” he said. Nevertheless, demand for higher education in the United Kingdom remains strong, driven by the need for high-skilled workers from both the public and private sectors.

2018 PISA test results showed that in reading comprehension, Canadian high-school students ranked above the OECD average, but below China and Singapore. Nationally, 14% of Canadian students scored below Level 2 (407 points or higher), but with a significant gender gap.

Overall, the Canadian PISA reading average has declined since 2000, albeit with a significant bump in 2015. In mathematics, Canada was behind China, Singapore, Japan, South Korea, Estonia, and Finland that year, when 600,000 students from 79 countries took the PISA tests.

During the 2010s, investigative journalists and authorities have unveiled numerous instances of academic dishonesty in Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States, ranging from contract cheating (buying an essay, hiring someone to complete an assignment or to take an exam) to bribing admissions officers. In some instances, advertisements for contract cheating were found right next to university campuses.

The actual prevalence of plagiarism remains unknown, and early research might have underestimated the true extent of this behavior. While courses on home economics, also known as family and consumer sciences (FCS), were commonplace in the United States during the twentieth century, they were on the decline in the early twenty-first for a variety of reasons, ranging from a shortage of qualified teachers to funding cuts.

FCS courses in the past taught the basics of cooking and housework but now also teach nutrition, community gardening, composting, personal finance, among other topics; they are intended to fill in the gaps of knowledge that parents in the olden days taught their children but in many cases can no longer do because both parents are working. In 2012, there were only 3.5 million students enrolled in FCS courses in secondary schools, a drop of 38% from the previous decade.

In 2013, less than a third of American public schools had access to broadband Internet service, according to the non-profit EducationSuperHighway. By 2019, however, that number reached 99%, which has increased the frequency of digital learning.

According to a 2015 Northeastern University Survey, 81% of Generation Z in the U.S. believes obtaining a college degree is necessary in achieving career goals. As Generation Z enters high school, and they start preparing for college, a primary concern is paying for a college education without acquiring debt.

Students report working hard in high school in hopes of earning scholarships and the hope that parents will pay the college costs not covered by scholarships. Students also report interest in ROTC programs as a means of covering college costs.

One third plan to rely on grants and scholarships and one quarter hope that their parents will cover the bulk of college costs. A 2019 survey by TD Ameliorate found that over 30% of Generation Z (and 18% of Millennials) said they have considered taking a gap year between high school and college.

According to the World Economic Forum, over one in five members of Generation Z are interested in attending a trade or technical school instead of a college or university. In the United States today, high school students are generally encouraged to attend college or university after graduation while the options of technical school and vocational training are often neglected.

According to the 2018 CNBC All-American Economic Survey, only 40% of Americans believed that the financial cost of a four-year university degree is justified, down from 44% five years before. STEM and healthcare grew in popularity while the humanities and the liberal arts have declined. Members of Generation Z are anxious to pick majors that teach them marketable skills.

According to the World Economic Forum (WE), some 88% consider job preparation to be the point of college. 39% are aiming for a career in medicine or healthcare, 20% in the natural sciences, 18% in biology or biotechnology, and 17% in business.

A 2018 Gallup poll on over 32,000 university students randomly selected from 43 schools from across the United States found that just over half (53%) of them thought their chosen major would lead to gainful employment. Just over one in three thought they would learn the skills and knowledge needed to become successful in the workplace.

Because jobs (that matched what one studied) were so difficult to find in the few years following the Great Recession, the value of getting a liberal arts degree and studying the humanities at university came into question, their ability to develop a well-rounded and broad-minded individual notwithstanding. Moreover, institutions of higher education came under heightened skepticism in the 2010s due to high costs and disappointing results.

No longer were promises of educating “citizens of the world” or estimates of economic impact coming from abstruse calculations sufficient. Colleges and universities found it necessary to prove their worth by clarifying how much money from which industry and company funded research, and how much it would cost to attend.

While the number of students majoring in the humanities have fallen significantly, those in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics, or STEM, have risen sharply. About a quarter of American university students failed to graduate within six years in the late 2010s and those who did face diminishing wage premiums.

Viewers and participants of the 2020 Integration Bee at the University of California, Berkeley. According to the 2018 National Assessment of Educational Progress, 73% of American eighth and twelfth graders had deficient writing skills. There have been numerous reports in the 2010s on how U.S. students were falling behind their international counterparts in the STEM subjects, especially those from (East) Asia.

This is a source of concern for some because academically gifted students in STEM can have an inordinately positive impact on the national economy. In addition, while American students are less focused on STEM, students from China and India are not only outperforming them but are also coming to the United States in large numbers for higher education.

Data from the Institute of International Education showed that compared to the 2013–14 academic year, the number of foreign students enrolling in American colleges and universities peaked in 2015–6, with about 300,000 students, before falling slightly in subsequent years. Compared to the 2017–18 academic year, 2018-19 saw a drop of 1% in the number of foreign students.

This is a concern for institutions that have become reliant on international enrollment for revenue, as they typically charge foreign students more than their domestic counterparts. However, the number of foreign graduates staying for work or further training has increased.

In 2019, there were 220,000 who were authorized to stay for temporary work, a 10% rise compared to fall 2017. Top sources of students studying abroad in the United States were China, South Korea, India, and Saudi Arabia (in that order).

Meanwhile, mathematics and computer science jumped 9%, replacing business as the second most popular majors after engineering. However, Harvard business professor Clayton Christensen, known for creating the theory of “disruptive innovation” and applying it to a variety of industries, including education, predicted that half of all American colleges will go bankrupt within the next ten to fifteen years because of innovations in online learning.

On the other hand, economist Michael Horn, also at Harvard, predicted in 2019 that 25% will close within the next 20 years. Rising administrative costs, sluggish middle-class wages, demographic decline (especially in the Northeastern and Midwestern United States), new forms of learning, stronger competition from better endowed universities, and higher demands for technical training undermine the financial viability of many schools.

“It's going to be brutal across American higher education,” Horn told CBS News. A 2019 analysis by Moody's Investor Services estimated that about 20% of all small private liberal arts colleges in the United States were in serious financial trouble.

The difference was especially great during the second half of the twentieth century, when enrollment rose dramatically compared to the 1940s. As a matter of fact, by the late 2010s, more than half of university students were women.

By the late 2010s, education has become Australia's fourth largest exports, after coal, iron ore, and natural gas. For Australia, foreign students are highly lucrative, bringing AU$9 billion into the Australian economy in 2018.

That amount was also just over a quarter of the revenue stream for Australian universities. In 2019, Australian institutions of higher education welcomed 440,000 foreign students, who took up about 30% of all seats.

In response to a surge in interest from prospective foreign students, Australian universities have invested lavishly in research laboratories, learning facilities, and art collections. Proponents of accepting high numbers of foreign students said this was because the Australian government was not providing sufficient funding, forcing schools to take in more from other countries.

Critics argued universities have made themselves too dependent on foreign revenue streams. In 2020, as SARS-CoV-2 spread around the globe, international travel restrictions were imposed, preventing foreign students from going to university in Australia, where the academic year begins in January.

This proved to be a serious blow to the higher-education industry in Australia because it is more dependent on foreign students than its counterparts in other English-speaking countries. Australia's federal government excluded universities AU$60bn wage-subsidy scheme because it wanted to focus on domestic students, who, it said, will continue to receive funding.

Federal and state governments were likely to provide relief to small regional institutions, but, like the big universities, they might need to shrink in order to survive. In 2018, as the number of robots at work continued to increase, the global unemployment rate fell to 5.2%, the lowest in 38 years.

Current trends suggest that developments in artificial intelligence and robotics will not result in mass unemployment but can actually create high-skilled jobs. However, in order to take advantage of this situation, one needs a culture and an education system that promote lifelong learning.

Honing skills that machines have not yet mastered, such as teamwork and effective communication, will be crucial. Parents of Generation Z might have the image of their child's first business being a lemonade stand or car wash.

While these are great first businesses, Generation Z now has access to social media platforms, website builders, 3D printers, and drop shipping platforms which provides them with additional opportunities to start a business at a young age. The internet has provided a storefront for Generation Z to sell their ideas to people around the world without ever leaving their house.

As technological progress continues, something that is made evident by the emergence of or breakthroughs in artificial intelligence, robotics, three-dimensional printing, nanotechnology, quantum computing, autonomous vehicles, among other fields, culminating in what economist Klaus Schwab calls the Fourth Industrial Revolution ', the demand for innovative, well-educated, and highly skilled workers continues to rise, as do their incomes. Demand for low-pay and low-skilled workers, on the other hand, will continue to fall.

Factors taken into account included the ability to attract high-skilled foreign workers, business-friendliness, regulatory environment, the quality of education, and the standard of living. Switzerland is best at retaining talents due to its excellent quality of life.

And the United States offers the most opportunity for growth due to the sheer size of its economy and the quality of higher education and training. In order to determine a country or territory's economic competitiveness, the WE considers factors such as the trustworthiness of public institutions, the quality of infrastructure, macro-economic stability, the quality of healthcare, business dynamism, labor market efficiency, and innovation capacity.

In 2020, the COVID-19 global pandemic not only created a health crisis but also triggered a severe economic downturn. While they are less likely to suffer from the disease, many people born between the late 1990s and early 2000s now face rather dim economic prospects, as companies cut back on hiring, cancel internships, and fire their employees in order to stay in business.

Low-skilled workers and those who just graduated are affected the most, but professionals who are able to work from home are spared. Statistics from the International Monetary Fund (IMF) reveal that between 2014 and 2019, Japan's unemployment rate went from about 4% to 2.4% and China's from almost 4.5% to 3.8%.

When he came to power in 1949, Chairman Mao Zedong vowed to abolish capitalism and social classes. 'Old money' ceased to exist in China as a result of a centrally planned economy.

But that changed in the 1980s when Deng Xiaoping introduced economic reforms ; the middle and upper classes have blossoming ever since. Chinese cities have morphed into major shopping centers.

The number of billionaires (in U.S. dollars) in China is growing faster than anywhere else in the world, so much so that butler academies, whose students will serve the 'new rich', and finishing schools, whose students were born to rich parents, have been established. However, according to the World Bank, 27% of Chinese still live below the poverty line.

The Chinese Communist Party (CCP) promised to end poverty by 2020. CCP General Secretary Xi Jinping's anti-corruption campaign also cracks down on what he considered 'ostentatious displays of wealth'.

Moreover, members of China's upper class must align themselves closely with the Communist Party. A number of young Chinese entrepreneurs have taken advantage of the Internet to become social media influencers to sell their products.

In Singapore, for example, not only is it now possible to place orders online, one may also purchase groceries in person, pay by mobile phone, and have them packed by machines; there are no cashiers. Whereas Westerners were first introduced to the Internet via their personal computers, people in China and Southeast Asia first got online with their mobile phones.

Consequently, the e-commerce industry's heavy usage of mobile phone applications has paid off handsomely. In particular, Chinese entrepreneurs invest in what are known as “super-apps,” those that enable users to access all kinds of services within them, not just messaging, but also bike rentals and digital wallets.

In Indonesia, relying on credit-card payments is difficult because the market penetration of this technology remains rather low (as of 2019). But it is Singapore that is the startup hub of the region, thanks to its excellent infrastructure, government support, and abundant capital.

Furthermore, Singaporean technology firms are “uniquely positioned” to learn from both the U.S. and China. China's Generation Z has been taking advantage of the variety of lending options available to them, albeit at the cost of exceedingly high and possibly illegal interest rates.

For comparison, household debt was 126% of GDP in Australia, 99% in South Korea, and 75% in the United States, according to Bank of America. According to the People's Bank of China, the nation's debt-to-disposable income ratio was 99.9% in 2019, up from 93.4% the previous year.

In Europe, although the unemployment rates of France and Italy remained relatively high, they were markedly lower than previously. Meanwhile, the German unemployment rate dipped below even that of the United States, a level not seen since its unification almost three decades prior.

Eurostat reported in 2019 that overall unemployment rate across the European Union dropped to its lowest level since January 2000, at 6.2% in August, meaning about 15.4 million people were out of a job. The Czech Republic (3%), Germany (3.1%) and Malta (3.3%) enjoyed the lowest levels of unemployment.

Member states with the highest unemployment rates were Italy (9.5%), Spain (13.8%), and Greece (17%). Countries with higher unemployment rates compared to 2018 were Denmark (from 4.9% to 5%), Lithuania (6.1% to 6.6%), and Sweden (6.3% to 7.1%).

In November 2019, the European Commission expressed concern over the fact that some member states have “failed to put their finances in order.” Rules, member nations must take steps to decrease public debt if it exceeds 60% of GDP.

The Commission commended Greece for making progress in economic recovery. Top five professions with insufficient workers in the European Union (late 2010s). According to the European Center for the Development of Vocational Training (Cede fop), the European Union in the late 2010s suffers from shortages of STEM specialists (including ICT professionals), medical doctors, nurses, midwives and schoolteachers.

In Italy, environmentally friendly architecture is in high demand. Estonia and France are running short of legal professionals.

Ireland, Luxembourg, Hungary, and the United Kingdom need more financial experts. All member states except Finland need more ICT specialists, and all but Belgium, Greece, Spain, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Portugal and the United Kingdom need more teachers.

The supply of STEM graduates has been insufficient because the dropout rate is high and because of an ongoing brain drain from some countries. At the same time, Europe's aging population necessitates the expansion of the healthcare sector.

Disincentives for (potential) workers in jobs in high demand include low social prestige, low salaries, and stressful work environments. Indeed, many have left the public sector for industry while some STEM graduates have taken non-STEM jobs.

Spanish think-tank FedEx noted that there were not enough young Europeans enrolled in vocational programs that teach them skills favored by the job market. Many new entrants to the workforce lacked the necessary skills demanded by employers.

Even though pundits predicted that the uncertainty due to the Brexit referendum would cause the British economy to falter or even fall into a recession, the unemployment rate has dipped below 4% while real wages have risen slightly in the late 2010s, two percent as of 2019. In particular, medical doctors and dentists saw their earnings bumped above the inflation rate in July 2019.

Nevertheless, uncertainty surrounding Britain's international trade policy suppressed the chances of an export boom despite the depreciation of the pound sterling. According to the employment website Glassdoor, the highest paying entry level jobs in the United Kingdom in 2019 are investment banking analyst, software engineer, business analyst, data scientist, financial analyst, software developer, civil engineer, audit assistant, design engineer, mechanical engineer.

In general, people with STEM degrees have the best chances of being recruited into a high-paying job. According to the Office for National Statistics, the median income of the United Kingdom in 2018 was £29,588.

In the United Kingdom, the number of teenagers who owned businesses jumped from 491 in 2009 to 4,152 in 2019. These people primarily use social media platforms to establish their careers.

Due to the strong correlation between economic growth and youth employment, recessions come with dire consequences for young people in the workforce. In the struggling Southern European economies, such as Greece and Spain, youth unemployment lingered on in the aftermath of the Great Recession, remaining stuck at around a third.

With another recession induced by the COVID-19 global pandemic, it could rise to about half. Even the Czech Republic, which previously boasted the lowest youth unemployment rate in Europe, at about 5%, could see that number triple in 2020.

Overall, European job markets are hostile towards new entrants, who, unlike their older counterparts, do not have permanent contracts and are often the first to be laid off during hard times. In 2017, the magazine Canadian Business analyzed publicly available data from Statistics Canada and Employment and Social Development Canada to determine the top occupations on the basis of growth and salaries.

However, in the late 2010s, Canada's oil and gas industry has been in decline due to a lack of political support and unfavorable policies from Ottawa. The number of oil rigs in Western Canada, where most of the country's deposits are located, dropped from 900 in 2014 to 550 in 2019.

Many Canadian companies have moved their crew and equipment to the United States, especially to Texas. While the Millennials tend to prefer flexibility, Generation Z is more interested in certainty and stability.

Whereas 23% of Millennials would leave a job if they thought they were not appreciated, only 15% of Generation Z would do the same, according to a Deloitte survey. As a result, barely one in two recruits from Generation Z are willing to negotiate a higher salary, even though, as of 2019, the U.S. labor market is very tight, meaning the balance of power is currently in favor of job seekers, collectively.

Indeed, Employers are open to negotiations for higher salaries and better benefits in order to attract talents. While there is agreement across generations that it is very important for employees to learn new skills, Millennials and Generation Z are overwhelmingly more likely than Baby Boomers to think that it is the job of employees to train themselves.

Baby Boomers tend to think it is the employer's responsibility. Moreover, Millennials and Generation Z (74%) tend to have more colleagues working remotely for a significant portion of their time compared to the Baby Boomers (58%).

An overwhelming majority, 80%, prefers to work for a medium-sized or large company. A Morgan Stanley report, called the Blue Paper, projected that the Millennials and Generation Z have been responsible in a surge in labor participation in the U.S., and that while the U.S. labor force expands, that of other G10 countries will contract.

This development alleviates concerns over America's aging population which jeopardizes the solvency of various welfare programs. As of 2019, Millennials and Generation Z account for 38% of the U.S. workforce; that number will rise to 58% in the incoming decade.

According to the United States Department of Labor, the unemployment rate in September 2019 was 3.5%, a number not seen since December 1969. At the same time, labor participation remained steady and most job growth tended to be full-time positions.

The number of people who ended up with part-time positions despite looking for full-time jobs dropped to 4.32 million, below the average of the previous three decades. Economists generally consider a population with an unemployment rate lower than 4% to be fully employed.

In fact, even people with disabilities or prison records are getting hired. However, the Pew Research Center found that the average wage in the U.S. in 2018 remained more or less the same as it was in 1978, when the seasons and inflation are taken into consideration.

Moreover, economists believe that job growth could slow to an average of just 100,000 per month and still be sufficient to keep up with population growth and keep economic recovery going. Appearing before Congress in November 2019, Chairman of the Federal Reserve Jerome Powell said that while the U.S. economy had taken a long time to recover from the Great Recession, it now enjoyed a strong labor market, low inflation, and moderate growth, and that his agency expected continued economic growth.

At the same time, U.S. household debt fell from 90% of GDP in 2010 to 75% in 2019, according to Bank of America. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the occupations with the highest median annual pay in the United States in 2018 included medical doctors (especially psychiatrists, anesthesiologists, obstetricians and gynecologists, surgeons, and orthodontists), chief executives, dentists, information system managers, chief architects and engineers, pilots and flight engineers, petroleum engineers, and marketing managers.

Their median annual pay ranged from about $134,000 (marketing managers) to over $208,000 (aforementioned medical specialties). Meanwhile, the occupations with the fastest projected growth rate between 2018 and 2028 are solar cell and wind turbine technicians, healthcare and medical aides, cybersecurity experts, statisticians, speech-language pathologists, genetic counselors, mathematicians, operations research analysts, software engineers, forest fire inspectors and prevention specialists, post-secondary health instructors, and phlebotomists.

Their projected growth rates are between 23% (medical assistants) and 63% (solar cell installers); their annual median pays range between roughly $24,000 (personal care aides) to over $108,000 (physician assistants). Occupations with the highest projected numbers of jobs added between 2018 and 2028 are healthcare and personal aides, nurses, restaurant workers (including cooks and waiters), software developers, janitors and cleaners, medical assistants, construction workers, freight laborers, marketing researchers and analysts, management analysts, landscapers and groundskeepers, financial managers, tractor and truck drivers, and medical secretaries.

The total numbers of jobs added ranges from 881,000 (personal care aides) to 96,400 (medical secretaries). Annual median pays range from over $24,000 (fast-food workers) to about $128,000 (financial managers).

According to the Department of Education, people with technical or vocational trainings are slightly more likely to be employed than those with a bachelor's degree and significantly more likely to be employed in their fields of specialty. The United States currently suffers from a shortage of skilled tradespeople.

If nothing is done, this problem will get worse than older workers retire and the market tightens due to falling unemployment rates. Economists argue that raising wages could incentivize more young people to pursue these careers.

Many manufacturers are partnering with community colleges to create apprenticeship and training programs. However, they still have an image problem as people perceive manufacturing jobs as unstable, given the mass layoffs during the Great Recession of 2007–8.

After the Great Recession, the number of U.S. manufacturing jobs reached a minimum of 11.5 million in February 2010. Nevertheless, twenty-first-century manufacturing is increasingly sophisticated, using advanced robotics, 3D printing, cloud computing, among other modern technologies, and technologically savvy employees are precisely who employers need.

Four-year university degrees are unnecessary; technical or vocational training, or perhaps apprenticeships would do. Quantitative historian Peter Urchin observed that demand for labor in the United States had been stagnant since 2000 and would likely continue to 2020 as the nation went through the negative part of the Kondratiev wave.

Moreover, the share of people in their 20s continued to grow till the end of the 2010s according projections by the U.S. Census Bureau, meaning the youth bulge would likely not fade away before the 2020s. Unlike some major economies, unemployment actually increased in Brazil, from about 6.7% in 2014 to about 11.4% in 2018.

Wages have remained stagnant and the labor market has been weak. According to the OECD PISA surveys, 15-year-olds in 2015 had a tougher time making friends at school than ten years prior.

European teenagers were becoming more and more like their Japanese and South Korean counterparts in social isolation. This might be due to intrusive parenting, heavy use of electronic devices, and concerns over academic performance and job prospects.

Sleep deprivation was common among teenagers of the 2010s. Sleep deprivation is on the rise among contemporary youths, thanks to a combination of poor sleep hygiene (having one's sleep disrupted by noise, light, and electronic devices), caffeine intake, beds that are too warm, a mismatch between biologically preferred sleep schedules at around puberty and social demands, insomnia, growing homework load, having too many extracurricular activities. Consequences of sleep deprivation include low mood, worse emotional regulation, anxiety, depression, increased likelihood of self-harm, suicidal ideation, and impaired cognitive functioning.

In addition, teenagers and young adults who prefer to stay up late tend to have high levels of anxiety, impulsivity, alcohol intake, and tobacco smoking. A study by Glasgow University found that the number of schoolchildren in Scotland reporting sleep difficulties increased from 23% in 2014 to 30% in 2018.

Older girls faced high pressure from schoolwork, friendships, family, career preparation, maintaining a good body image and good health. Data from the British National Health Service (NHS) showed that between 1999 and 2017, the number children below the age of 16 suffering from at least one mental disorder increased from 11.4% to 13.6%.

Researcher interviewed older adolescents (aged 17–19) for the first time in 2017 and found that girls were two thirds more likely than younger girls and twice more likely than boys from the same age group to suffer from a mental disorder. In England, hospitalizations for self-harm doubled among teenage girls between 1997 and 2018, but there was no parallel development among boys.

While the number of children receiving medical attention for mental health problems has clearly gone up, this is not necessarily an epidemic as the number of self-reports went up even faster possibly due to the diminution of stigma. Furthermore, doctors are more likely than before to diagnose a case of self-harm when previously they only treated the physical injuries.

In Ontario, for instance, the number of teenagers getting medical treatment for self-harm doubled in 2019 compared to ten years prior. Various factors that increased youth anxiety and depression include over-parenting, perfectionism (especially in regard to schoolwork), social isolation, social-media use, financial problems, housing worries, and concern over some global issues such as climate change.

In the United States, the number of teenagers who suffered from the classic symptoms of depression rose 33% between 2010 and 2015. During the same period, the number of those aged 13 to 21 who committed suicide jumped 31%.

Especially, those who spent five or more hours had their suicide risk factors increase 71%. It is not clear, however, whether depression causes a teenager to spend more time online or the other way around.

Many teenagers told researchers they used a smartphone or a tablet right before bed, kept the device close, and used it as an alarm clock. But the blue light emitted by these devices, texting, and social networking are known for perturbing sleep.

Besides mental problems like depression and anxiety, sleep deprivation is also linked to reduced performance in school and obesity. Parents can address the problem of sleep deprivation simply by imposing limits on screen time and buying simple alarm clocks.

Research from the American Academy of Pediatrics analyzing responses from the parents of caregivers of 49,050 children aged six to seventeen in the combined 2016-2017 National Survey of Children's Health revealed that only 47.6% of American children slept for nine hours one most days, meaning a significant number was sleep-deprived. Compared with children who did not get enough sleep most nights, those who did were 44% more likely to be curious about new things, 33% more likely to finish their homework, 28% more likely to care about their academic performance, and 14% more likely to finish the tasks they started.

The researchers identified the risk factors associated with sleep deprivation among children to be the low educational attainment of parents or caregivers, being from families living below the federal poverty line, higher digital media usage, more negative childhood experiences, and mental illnesses. In a 2019 study, Twinge and her collaborators examined surveys from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health of 200,000 adolescents aged 13 to 17 from 2005 to 2017 and 400,000 adults aged 18 and over from 2008 to 2017.

They found that while there was a marked increase in the number of teenagers and young adults reporting mental illness, there was no corresponding development among those of 26 years and up. Multidisciplinary research in the early twenty-first century suggests that could help explain the rise of certain medical conditions such as autism and autoimmune disorders among children.

Autism and schizophrenia may be due to genes inherited from the mother and the father that are over-expressed and that fight a tug-of-war in the child's body. Allergies, asthma, and autoimmune disorders appear linked to higher standards of sanitation, which prevent the immune systems of modern humans from being exposed to various parasites and pathogens the way their ancestors' were, making them hypersensitive and more likely to overreact.

The human body is not built from a professionally engineered blueprint, but rather is a system shaped over long periods of time by evolution with all kinds of trade-offs and imperfections. Research in evolutionary medicine suggests that diseases are prevalent because natural selection favors reproduction over health and longevity.

Anatomical diagram of myopia or nearsightedness. A 2015 study found that the frequency of nearsightedness has doubled in the United Kingdom within the last 50 years. Ophthalmologist Steve Scallion, chairman of the Optical Express International Medical Advisory Board, noted that research have pointed to a link between the regular use of handheld electronic devices and eyestrain.

However, the syndrome does not cause vision loss or any other permanent damage. In order to alleviate or prevent eyestrain, the Vision Council recommends that people limit screen time, take frequent breaks, adjust screen brightness, change the background from bright colors to gray, increase text sizes, and blinking more often.

Parents should not only limit their children's screen time but should also lead by example. While food allergies have been observed by doctors since ancient times and virtually all foods can be allergens, research by the Mayo Clinic in Minnesota found they are becoming increasingly common since the early 2000s.

In the United Kingdom, for example, the number of children hospitalized for allergic reactions increased by a factor of five between 1990 and the late 2010s, as did the number of British children allergic to peanuts. In general, the better developed the country, the higher the rates of allergies.

One possible explanation, supported by the U.S. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, is that parents keep their children “too clean for their own good.” They recommend exposing newborn babies to a variety of potentially allergenic foods, such as peanut butter, before they reach the age of six months.

According to this “hygiene hypothesis,” such exposures give the infant's immune system some exercise, making it less likely to overreact. Evidence for this includes the fact that children living on a farm are consistently less likely to be allergic than their counterparts who are raised in the city, and that children born in a developed country to parents who immigrated from developing nations are more likely to be allergic than their parents are.

A research article published in 2019 in the Lancet journal reported that the number of South Africans aged 15 to 19 being treated for HIV increased by a factor of ten between 2019 and 2010. This is partly due to improved detection and treatment programs.

However, less than 50% of the people diagnosed with HIV went onto receive antiviral medication due to social stigma, concerns about clinical confidentiality, and domestic responsibilities. While the annual number of deaths worldwide due to HIV/AIDS has declined from its peak in the early 2000s, experts warned that this venereal disease could rebound if the world's booming adolescent population is left unprotected.

Obese individuals face higher risks of type II diabetes, heart disease, osteoarthritis and stroke. The Australian Medical Associated and Obesity Coalition have urged the federal government to levy a tax on sugary drinks, to require health ratings, and to regulate the advertisement for fast foods.

In all, the number of Australian adults who are overweight or obese rose from 63% in 2014–15 to 67% in 2017–18. In Europe and the United States, the average age of the onset of puberty among girls was around 13 in the early twenty-first century, down from about 16 a hundred years earlier.

Moreover, in some cultures, pubertal onset remains a marker of readiness for marriage, for, in their point of view, a girl who shows signs of puberty might engage in sexual intercourse or risks being assaulted, and marrying her off is how she might be 'protected'. To compound matters, factors known for prompting mental health problems are themselves linked to early pubertal onset; these are early childhood stress, absent fathers, domestic conflict, and low socioeconomic status.

Possible causes of early puberty could be positive, namely improved nutrition, or negative, such as obesity and stress. Other triggers include genetic factors, high body-mass index (BMI), exposure to endocrine-disrupting substances that remain in use, such as Bis phenol A (found in some plastics) and dichlorobenzene (used in mothballs and air deodorants), and to banned but persistent chemicals, such as dichlorodiphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), and perhaps a combination thereof (the 'cocktail effect').

A 2019 meta-analysis and review of the research literature from all inhabited continents found that between 1977 and 2013, the age of pubertal onset among girls has fallen by an average of almost three months per decade, but with significant regional variations, ranging from 10.1 to 13.2 years in Africa to 8.8 to 10.3 years in the United States. This investigation relies on measurements of démarche (initiation of breast tissue development) using the Tanner scale rather than self-reported monarch (first menstruation) and MRI brain scans for signs of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis being reactivated.

In the United States, African girls on average enter puberty first, followed by those of Hispanic, European, and Asian extraction, in that order. But African-American girls are less likely to face the negative effects of puberty than their counterparts of European descent.

Unlike the case of girls, pubertal onset in boys is more difficult to determine and study, though the literature suggests that boys, too, are reaching puberty earlier than their predecessors. In 2012, the American Academy of Pediatrics reported that American boys were reaching puberty between six months to two years earlier than a few decades before, with Africans entering that stage the soonest, at around nine years of age, followed by Caucasians and Hispanics, at about ten.

In 2016, the Parka Foundation and Populous conducted an international study examining the attitudes of 20,000 people aged 15 to 21 in twenty countries: Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Israel, Italy, Japan, New Zealand, Nigeria, Russia, South Africa, South Korea, Turkey, the U.K., and the U.S.A. They found that young people's support for free speech dwindled if it was deemed offensive to a religion (56%) or a minority group (49%).

Whether or not they favored legal migration received mixed responses, with 27% saying 'yes' in France, 31% in the U.K., 37% in Germany, and 38% in Italy and the U.S. Overall, 31% believed their governments should make it easier for immigrants to work and live legally in their countries while 23% said it should be more difficult, a margin of 8%. While 72% of Brazilian youths thought their government was doing too little to address the international refugee crisis, only 16% of young Turks did; in the U.K. that number was 48%.

Overall, their top concerns for the future included extremism and terrorism (83%), war (81%), the widening gap between the rich and the poor (69%), the lack of access to education (69%), climate change (63%), and the risk of a global pandemic (62%). Americans aged 18 to 34 are becoming less tolerant of the LGBT community over time (Harris 2018). The same international survey also asked about people's viewpoints on moral questions regarding sex and gender.

Harris found that young women were driving this development; their overall comfort levels dived from 64% in 2017 to 52% in 2018. In general, the fall of comfort levels was the steepest among people aged 18 to 34 between 2016 and 2018.

(Seniors aged 72 or above became more accepting of LGBT doctors and having their (grand) children taking LGBT history lessons during the same period, albeit with a bump in discomfort levels in 2017.) Results from this Harris poll were released on the 50th anniversary of the riots that broke out in Stonewall Inn, New York City, in June 1969, thought to be the start of the LGBT rights movement.

At that time, homosexuality was considered a mental illness or a crime in many U.S. states. The aforementioned international survey by the Parka Foundation showed that 66% of people aged 15 to 21 favored legal abortion.

56% of people aged 65 or over did not approve of abortion compared to 37% who did. Gallup found in 2018 that nationwide, Americans were split on the issue of abortion, with equal numbers of people considering themselves “pro-life” or “pro-choice”, 48%.

Goldman Sachs analysts Robert Boroujerdi and Christopher Wolf described Generation Z as “more conservative, more money-oriented, more entrepreneurial and pragmatic about money compared with Millennials.” In 2018, the International Federation of Accountants released a report on a survey of 3,388 individuals aged 18 to 23 hailing from G20 countries, with a sample size of 150 to 300 per country.

They found that members of Generation Z prefer a nationalist to a globalist approach to public policy by a clear margin, 51% to 32%. Nationalism was strongest in China (by a 44% margin), India (30%), South Africa (37%), and Russia (32%), while support for globalism was strongest in France (20% margin) and Germany (3%).

In general, for members of Generation Z, the top three priorities for public policy are the stability of the national economy, the quality of education, and the availability of jobs; the bottom issues, on the other hand, were addressing income and wealth inequality, making regulations smarter and more effective, and improving the effectiveness of international taxation. Moreover, healthcare is a top priority for Generation Z in Canada, France, Germany, and the United States.

Addressing climate change is very important for Generation Z in India, and South Korea, and tackling wealth and income inequality is of vital importance to the same in Indonesia, Saudi Arabia, and Turkey. 2018 surveys of American teenagers 13 to 17 and adults aged 18 or over conducted by the Pew Research Center found that Generation Z had broadly similar views to the Millennials on various political and social issues.

More specifically, 54% of Generation Z believed that climate change is real and is due to human activities while only 10% reject the scientific consensus on climate change. 70% wanted the government to play a more active role in solving their problems.

49% considered single motherhood to be neither a positive nor a negative for society. 62% saw increased ethnic or racial diversity as good for society.

Across all the generations surveyed, at least 84% thought that both parents ought to be responsible for rearing children. About 13% of Generation Z thought that mothers should be the primary caretaker of children, with similar percentages for the other demographic cohorts.

Very few thought that fathers should be the ones mainly responsible for taking care of children. Despite reports of a surge in turnouts among young voters in the 2015 and 2017 United Kingdom general elections, statistical scrutiny by the British Elections Study revealed that the margin of error was too large to determine whether there was a significant increase or decrease in the number of young participants.

Winning the support of young people does not necessarily translate to increasing young voters' turnouts, and positive reactions on social media may not lead to success at the ballot box. Initial reports of a youth surge came from constituency-level survey data, which has a strong chance of over-representing voters rather than the Kingdom as a whole.

Similarly, in the United States, despite the hype surrounding the political engagement and record turnout among young voters, their voting power has actually declined. In round terms, the share of voters between the ages of 18 and 24 will fall from 13% in 2000 to 12% in 2020 while that of voters aged 65 and over will rise from 18% to 23% during the same period, according to Richard Fry of the Pew Research Center.

According to Sean Simpsons of Dipsos, people are more likely to vote when they have more at stake, such as children to raise, homes to maintain, and income taxes to pay. He suggests that this generational gap is due to the fact that today's youths grew up in a completely different sociopolitical environments from their parents and grandparents and are more likely to have university experience, well known for making people socially liberal.

However, according to a field survey by The Washington Post interviewing every fifth person at the protest, only ten percent of the participants were 18 years of age or younger. Polls conducted by Gallup and the Pew Research Center found that support for stricter gun laws among people aged 18 to 29 and 18 to 36, respectively, is statistically no different from that of the general population.

According to Gallup, 57% of Americans are in favor of stronger gun control legislation. Nationwide, a similar percentage of American adults lived in a household with a gun.

A YouGov poll conducted in the spring of 2018 revealed that 41% of Britons between the ages of 18 to 24 thought that immigration to their country was “too high,” compared to 58% of those 25 and 49. Another YouGov 2018 poll asked British voters whether leaving the European Union was a good idea in hindsight.

Overall the British public has not changed their minds on the issue. By analyzing voter data, political scientists Roger Eat well and Matthew Goodwin came to the conclusion that the popular narrative that the rise of national-populist movements seen across much of the Western world is due largely to angry old white men who would soon be demographically displaced by younger and more liberal voters is flawed.

In many European democracies, national-populist politicians and political parties tend to be the most popular among voters below the age of 40. In France, Marine Le Pen and her National Rally (formerly the National Front) won more votes from people between the ages of 18 and 35 during the first round of the 2017 Presidential election than any other candidates.

Moreover, the share of women aged 18 to 26 who backed the Le Pen political family rose from 9% in 1988 to 32% in 2017, closing the gender gap in the process. In Italy, Matteo Salving and his League have a base of support with virtually no generational gap.

In Austria, more than one in two men between the ages of 18 and 29 voted for the Freedom Party in 2016. A 2016 survey by Parka Foundation and Populous conducted on 20,000 people aged 15 to 21 from twenty countries from all inhabited continents revealed that religious faith was influential to 42% of the respondents and inconsequential to 39%.

But there was a large gap among countries with Nigeria at one end (32%) and Germany and Japan on the other (3%). The 2016 British Social Attitudes Survey found that 71% of people between the ages of 18 and 24 had no religion, compared to 62% the year before.

12% of respondents aged 18 to 24 agreed with the claim that Christians were a bad influence on society, compared to just over half who disagreed. Results from the 2018 the Comes survey were released a day after the Church of England announced it was going to establish more than a hundred churches, mainly in urban areas, to attract new followers.

A 2016 survey by Barney and Impact 360 Institute on about 1,500 Americans aged 13 and up suggests that the percentage of atheists and agnostics was 21% among Generation Z, compared to 15% for Millennials, 13% for Generation X, and 9% for Baby Boomers. Researchers also asked over 600 non-Christian teenagers and almost 500 adults what their biggest barriers to faith were.

They found that for Generation Z, these were what they perceived as internal contradictions of the religion and its believers, yet only six percent reported an unpleasant personal experience with a Christian or at church. 82% believed the church was relevant and helped them live a meaningful life.

46% of adolescents require factual evidence before believing in something, on par with Millennials. For comparison, 45% of Millennials, 34% of Generation X, and 29% of the Baby Boomers believed such a conflict exists.

Globally, religion is in decline in North America and Western Europe, but is growing in the rest of the world. Although the number of atheists, agnostics, and people not affiliated with organized religion continues to grow in Europe and the United States, their percentage of the world population is falling because of their comparatively low fertility rate (1.7).

In general, the growth or decline of a given religion is due more to age and fertility rather than conversion. Besides the level of education and income, how religious a woman is determines how many children she will bear in her lifetime.

For example, in the cities of the Middle East, women who supported Sharia law had a 50% fertility advantage over those who opposed it the most at the turn of the century. According to the World Religious Database, the proportion of the human population identifying with a religion increased from 81% in 1970 to 85% in 2000 and is predicted to rise to 87% in 2025.

In 2018, Muslims had a median age of 23, Hindus 26, Christians 30, Buddhists and the religiously unaffiliated 34, and Jews 36. Meanwhile, the expansion of secularism will slow in Europe as the twenty-first century progresses.

For example, in Israel, the ultra-Orthodox Jews comprised just about five percent of the nation's primary schoolchildren in 1960, but by the start of the twenty-first century, one third of Jewish first-graders in Israel came from this religious sect. Ultra-Orthodox Jewish women in Israel had on average 7.5 children compared to their more mainstream counterparts with just over two in the early 2000s.

In Europe, immigration from the Middle East and Africa is an engine of religious growth. Children of immigrants tend to be about as religious as their parents and consider their religion to be a marker of their ethnic identity, thereby insulating themselves from the secularizing forces of the host society.

The other engine is comparatively high fertility and religious endgame. In France, a white Catholic woman had half a child more than her secular counterparts in the early 2000s; in Spain, that number was 0.77.

In the Netherlands, the youngest villages belong to Orthodox Calvinists, who comprised 7% of the Dutch population by the early 2000s. In Austria, the number of people below the age of 15 who were Muslims rose past the 10%-mark in the first decade of the twenty-first century.

In the United Kingdom, over 90% of Muslims married other Muslims by the turn of the millennium, and it is well known that children born into an interfaith marriage tend to be less religious than their parents. In the United States, Catholicism will become the largest religion by 2040 despite considerable losses to secularization and conversion to Protestantism thanks in no small part to the fact that Latino Catholics had a fertility rate of 2.83 compared to the national average of 2.03 in 2003.

Such religious demographic changes will bring about social and political ramifications later in the century. Also, in 2013, 8% of teenagers never or rarely wore a seat belt when riding in a car with someone else, as opposed to 26% in 1991.

Research from the Annie E. Casey Foundation conducted in 2016 found Generation Z youth had lower teen pregnancy rates, less substance abuse, and higher on-time high school graduation rates compared with Millennials. Three quarters of American twelfth-graders believed their peers disapproved of binge-drinking.

American adolescents maintained their abstinence from alcohol and sexual intercourse through early adulthood. In fact, adolescent pregnancy was in decline during the early twenty-first century all across the industrialized world thanks to the widespread availability of contraception and the growing avoidance of sexual intercourse among teenagers.

In New Zealand, the pregnancy rate for females aged 15 to 19 dropped from 33 per 1,000 in 2008 to 16 in 2016. “Cannabis has now taken over from the opiates in terms of the most people in treatment for addiction,” psychopharmacologist Val Currant of the University College London (UCL) told The Telegraph.

Moreover, the quality and affordability of various addictive drugs have improved in recent years, making them an appealing alternative to alcoholic beverages for many young people, who now have the ability to arrange a meeting with a deal via social media. Addiction psychiatrist Adam Win stock of UCL found using his Global Drug Survey that young people rated cocaine more highly than alcohol on the basis of value for money, 4.8 compared to 4.7 out of 10.

As of 2019, cannabis was legal for both medical and recreational use in Uruguay, Canada, and 33 U.S. states. In the United States, Generation Z is the first to be born into a time when the legalization of marijuana at the federal level is being seriously considered.

While adolescents (people aged 12 to 17) in the late 2010s were more likely to avoid both alcohol and marijuana compared to their predecessors from 20 years before, college-aged youths are more likely than their elders to consume marijuana. Shortly before the full legalization of marijuana, the Government of Canada commissioned a study from health-policy analyst Fiona Clement and her colleagues at the University of Calgary in order to guide their regulations of the substance.

After surveying the literature, Clement and her team found that pregnant women, teenagers, and people prone to mental illnesses are especially vulnerable to the negative effects of marijuana usage, including, among other things, impaired driving, higher risks of stroke testicular cancer, memory loss, and certain mental illnesses, such as psychosis. Compared to those who do not use cannabis or those who start after they reach 16 years, people who start before that age suffer from reduced cognitive functioning (including planning and decision-making skills), and higher levels of impulsivity.

According to the U.S. National Institute on Drug Abuse, heavy use of marijuana is linked to low life satisfaction, mental health issues, and relationship problems; second-hand smoke could harm children and people with asthma. Heavy use is also correlated with schizophrenia, but a causal link has not been established.

About one in ten marijuana users developed a substance use disorder, meaning they continue to use it even though it causes problems in their lives, and those who use it before the age of 18 are more likely to suffer from it. A 2016 analysis of two longitudinal studies of twins (N1=789{\display style N_{1}=789} and N2=2,277{\display style N_{2}=2,277}) reveals a noticeable decline in crystallized intelligence between preadolescence and late adolescence among marijuana smokers but no significant effects on IQ, as those can be attributed to other factors, namely genetics and familial environments conducive to low intellectual achievement and marijuana use initiation.

During the 2010s, when most Generation Z experienced some or all of their adolescence, reductions in youth crime were seen in some Western countries. A report looking at statistics from 2018 to 2019 noted that the numbers of young people aged ten to seventeen in England and Wales being cautioned or sentenced for criminal activity had fallen by 83% over the previous decade, while those entering the youth justice system for the first time had fallen by 85%.

In 2006, 3,000 youths in England and Wales were detained for criminal activity; ten years later, that number fell below 1,000. Research from Australia suggested that crime rates among adolescents had consistently declined between 2010 and 2019.

In a 2014 report, Statistics Canada stated that police-reported crimes committed by persons between the ages of 12 and 17 had been falling steadily since 2006 as part of a larger trend of decline from a peak in 1991. This was primarily driven by a 51% drop in theft of items worth no more than CAN$5,000 and burglary.

The most common types of crime committed by Canadian adolescents were theft and violence. At school, the most frequent offenses were possession of cannabis, common assault, and uttering threats.

Overall, although they made up only 7% of the population, adolescents stood accused of 13% of all crimes in Canada. In addition, mid- to late-teens were more likely to be accused of crimes than any other age group in the country.

Over half of the teenagers interviewed told researchers they had viewed pornography, though the actual number might be higher due to the sensitivity of this topic. While parents generally believe adolescents who view pornography for pleasure tend to be boys, the surveys and interviews reveal that this behavior is also common among girls.

Most teenagers encounter pornography on a dedicated website, but an increasing number watches it on social media platforms such as Snapchat and WhatsApp. Many told researchers they felt anxious about their body image and the expectations of their potential sexual partners as a result of viewing, and their concerns over violent behavior.

About one third of the U.K. population watches these films, according to industry estimates. This report came as part of an ill-fated attempt by the U.K. government to introduce age verification to pornographic websites.

This overall trend reflects the dominant ideology of “intensive parenting” and the fact that contemporary fathers tend to hold more egalitarian views in regard to gender roles and are more likely than their predecessors to want to play an active role in their children's lives. In the United States, the Pew Research Center's analysis of data from the American Community Survey and the Decennial Census revealed that the number of children living outside the traditional ideal of parents marrying young and staying together till death has risen precipitously between the mid- to late-twentieth century and the early twenty-first century.

15% of American children lived with married parents at least one of whom remarried in 2013, with little change from previous decades. In Australia, growing numbers of older teenage boys and young men are now eschewing romantic relationships altogether, citing concerns over the traumatic experiences of older male family members, including false accusations of sexual misconduct or loss of assets and money after a divorce.

We’re stuck in a gender war, and it’s harming our children,” psychologist Meredith Fuller told News.com.Au. According to a 2014 report from UNICEF, some 250 million females were forced into marriage before the age of 15, especially in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa.

Problems faced by child brides include loss of educational opportunity, less access to medical care, higher childbirth mortality rates, depression, and suicidal ideation. Early twenty-first-century youths are heavily reliant on mobile devices for entertainment.

Generation Z is the first cohort to have Internet technology readily available at a young age. With the Web 2.0 revolution that occurred throughout the mid-late 2000s and 2010s, they have been exposed to an unprecedented amount of technology in their upbringing, with the use of mobile devices growing exponentially over time.

Anthony Turner characterizes Generation Z as having a “digital bond to the Internet”, and argues that it may help youth to escape from emotional and mental struggles they face offline. According to U.S. consultants Sparks and Honey in 2014, 41% of Generation Z spend more than three hours per day using computers for purposes other than schoolwork, compared with 22% in 2004.

In 2015, an estimated 150,000 apps, 10% of those in Apple's App Store, were educational and aimed at children up to college level, though opinions are mixed whether the net result will be deeper involvement in learning and more individualized instruction, or impairment through greater technology dependence and a lack of self-regulation that may hinder child development. Parents of Gen Zero fear the overuse of the Internet, and dislike the ease of access to inappropriate information and images, as well as social networking sites where children can gain access to people worldwide.

A 2015 study by Microsoft found that 77% of respondents aged 18 to 24 said yes to the statement, “When nothing is occupying my attention, the first thing I do is reach for my phone,” compared to just 10% for those aged 65 and over. An online newspaper about texting, SMS and MMS writes that teens own cellphones without necessarily needing them; that receiving a phone is considered a rite of passage in some countries, allowing the owner to be further connected with their peers, and it is now a social norm to have one at an early age.

An article from the Pew Research Center stated that “nearly three-quarters of teens have or have access to a smartphone and 30% have a basic phone, while just 12% of teens 13 to 15 say they have no cell phone of any type”. These numbers are only on the rise and the fact that the majority own a cell phone has become one of these generations defining characteristics.

Besides some cultural and social factors such as the desire for acceptance and popularity among peers, the falling age at which a child receives a smartphone may contribute to the growth in this activity. Some consider it a high-risk behavior because of the ease of dissemination to third parties leading to reputational damage and the link to various psychological conditions including depression and even suicidal ideation.

Others defend youths' freedom of expression over the Internet. In any case, there is some evidence that at least in the short run, sexting brings positive feelings of liveliness or satisfaction.

However, girls are more likely than boys to be receiving insults, social rejections, or reputational damage as a result of sexting. Despite being labeled as 'digital natives', the 2018 International Computer and Information Literacy Study (ICILY), conducted on 42,000 eighth-graders (or equivalents) from 14 countries and education systems, found that only two percent of these people were sufficiently proficient with information devices to justify that description, and only 19% could work independently with computers to gather information and to manage their work.

Countries or education systems whose students scored near or above the international average of 496 in CIL were, in increasing order, France, North Rhine-Westphalia, Portugal, Germany, the United States, Finland, South Korea, Moscow, and Denmark. CT is divided into four levels, the Upper, Middle, and Lower Regions.

International averages for the proportions of students reaching each of these were 18%, 50%, and 32%, respectively. Countries or education systems whose students scored near or above the international average of 500 were, in increasing order, the United States, France, Finland, Denmark, and South Korea.

In general, female eighth-graders outperformed their male counterparts in CIL by an international average of 18 points but were narrowly outclassed by their male counterparts in CT. (Narrow gaps made estimates of averages have higher coefficients of variation.) In the United States, where the computer-based tests were administered by the National Center for Education Statistics, 72% of eighth-graders said they searched for information on the Internet at least once a week or every school day, and 65% reported they were autodidactic information finders on the Internet.

The use of social media has become integrated into the daily lives of most Gen Zero with access to mobile technology, who use it primarily to keep in contact with friends and family. As a result, mobile technology has caused online relationship development to become a new generational norm.

Gene uses social media and other sites to strengthen bonds with friends and to develop new ones. They interact with people who they otherwise would not have met in the real world, becoming a tool for identity creation.

Focus group testing found that while teens may be annoyed by many aspects of Facebook, they continue to use it because participation is important in terms of socializing with friends and peers. This is, in part, due to parents not typically using these social networking sites.

Speed and reliability are important factors in members of Generation Z choice of social networking platform. This need for quick communication is presented in popular Generation Z apps like Vine and the prevalent use of emojis.

A survey of U.S. teenagers from advertising agency J. Walter Thomson likewise found that the majority of teenagers are concerned about how their posting will be perceived by people or their friends. A 2019 Child wise survey of 2,000 British children aged five to sixteen found that the popularity Facebook halved compared to the previous year.

Children of the older age group, fifteen to sixteen, reported signs of online fatigue, with about three of ten saying they wanted to spend less time on the Internet. In his 2017 book Irresistible, professor of marketing Adam Alter explained that not only are children addicted to electronic gadgets, but their addiction jeopardizes their ability to read non-verbal social cues.

A 2019 meta-analysis of thousands of studies from almost two dozens countries suggests that while as a whole, there is no association between screen time and academic performance, when the relation between individual screen-time activity and academic performance is examined, negative associations are found. Watching television is negatively correlated with overall school grades, language fluency, and mathematical ability while playing video games was negatively associated with overall school grades only.

Furthermore, excessive television viewing is known for harming the ability to pay attention as well as other cognitive functions; it also causes behavioral disorders, such as having unhealthy diets, which could damage academic performance. Excessive video gaming, on the other hand, is known for impairing social skills and mental health, and as such could also damage academic performance.

However, depending on the nature of the game, playing it could be beneficial for the child; for instance, the child could be motivated to learn the language of the game in order to play it better. Among adolescents, excessive Internet surfing is well known for being negatively associated with school grades, though previous research does not distinguish between the various devices used.

Overall, the effects of screen time are stronger among adolescents then children. Research conducted in 2017 reports that the social media usage patterns of this generation may be associated with loneliness, anxiety, and fragility, and that girls may be more affected than boys by social media.

According to 2018 CDC reports, girls are disproportionately affected by the negative aspects of social media than boys. Researchers at the University of Essex analyzed data from 10,000 families, from 2010 to 2015, assessing their mental health utilizing two perspectives: Happiness and Well-being throughout social, familial, and educational perspectives.

This percentage influx may explain why more girls reported experiencing cyberbullying, decreased self-esteem, and emotional instability more than their male counterparts. Other researchers hypothesize that girls are more affected by social media usage because of how they use it.

In a study conducted by the Pew Research Center in 2015, researchers discovered that while 78% girls reported to making a friend through social media, only 52% of boys could say the same. They also found that 57% of boys claimed to make friends through video gaming, while this was only true for 13% of girls.

Another Pew Research Center survey conducted in April 2015, reported that women are more likely to use Pinterest, Facebook, and Instagram than men. In counterpoint, men were more likely to utilize online forums, e-chat groups, and Reddit than women.

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^ a b Malik, Pal lab K.; Mascaras, Maya N.; Mather's, Colin D.; Due, Tarn; SABENA, Shikhar (2011). “Prevalence estimates of mental health problems in children and adolescents with intellectual disability: A systematic review and meta-analysis”.

“IQ decline and Piaget: Does the rot start at the top?” “Education levels stagnating despite higher spending: OECD survey”.

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^ Takanashi, Sophie T. “Japanese Youth and Mobile Media”. Generation Z is also hugely synonymous with technology because Centennials grew up in the era of smartphones.

In fact, most of today's youth can't even remember a time before social media. ^ “Millennials overtake Baby Boomers as America's largest generation”.

^ Generations Defined Archived June 16, 2016, at the Payback Machine. Mark McBride ^ “Move Over, Millennials: How 'gen' Is Different From Any Other Generation”.

^ “Generation Z News The LATEST CHARACTERISTICS, RESEARCH, AND FACTS”. ^ “New global poll documents the pandemic's impact on inequality”.

^ “MTV launches 2020 '+1thevote' campaign to mobilize Millennials and Gen Z ". ^ “A Millennial Sized Problem Stands in Front of Gen Z Homebuyers”.

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^ a b c d e f Broad bent, Emma; Bouzoukis, John; Lew, Nicole; Pot, Vikas; Simon's, Jonathan (January 2017). ^ “Germany's youth 'have lost their sense of fun', study finds”.

“Man Inadvertently Proves That Hipsters Look Alike By Mistaking Photo As Himself”. “Museums are the most popular heritage attraction among young people”.

“Nickelodeon, Cartoon Network and other kids cable channels see viewership declines as streaming grows”. “From Star Trek to Fifty Shades: how fan fiction went mainstream”.

“New Study Spotlights Gen Z's Unique Music Consumption Habits”. ^ Serra, Joan; Corral, Álvaro; Hard, Martín; Marcos, Joseph Ll.

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^ Twinge, Jean; Martin, Gabrielle; Spitz berg, Brian (2018). “Move Over Millennials, Here Comes Generation Z : Understanding the 'New Realists' Who Are Building the Future”.

“Understanding Neurocognitive Developmental Disorders Can Improve Education for All”. “Too many men: China and India battle with the consequences of gender imbalance”.

“Govt aid alone not enough to raise birth rate: Minister”. “Number of babies born in Singapore drops to 8-year low”.

^ a b Woodard, Dominik; SIPP, Shaun; Hirshleifer, David; Romanov, Natalia L. (April 15, 2021). Boulder, Colorado, United States: Paradigm Publishers.

“In Italy, rising anxiety over falling birth rates”. “Brain drain and declining birth rate threaten the future of Greece”.

^ “Vladimir Putin reveals plan to boost Russia birth rate”. “Finland hit harder by demographic changes than other Nordics, shows report”.

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“Young people are outnumbered and outvoted by older generations”. “US fertility rate is below level needed to replace population, study says”.

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^ Rifled, Kali; Novas, Yulia; Dale, Philip S.; Plain, Robert (July 23, 2015). “Pleiotropy across academic subjects at the end of compulsory education”.

“1.5 billion children around globe affected by school closure. “On Macron's orders: France will bring back compulsory national service”.

“National civic service: A crash course in self-defense, emergency responses and French values”. ^ “Poll says 80% of French want a return to national service”.

“Almost half of all young people in England go on to higher education”. “Despite A Revamped Focus On Real-Life Skills, 'Home EC' Classes Fade Away”.

^ Generation Z is entrepreneurial, wants to chart its own future | news @ Northeastern”. ^ Generation Z is entrepreneurial, wants to chart its own future”.

“After decades of pushing bachelor's degrees, U.S. needs more tradespeople”. “Anxious about debt, Generation Z makes college choice a financial one”.

“Half of College Students Say Their Major Leads to a Good Job”. “Facing skepticism, colleges set out to prove their value”.

“US draws fewer new foreign students for 3rd straight year”. “Harvard Business School professor: Half of American colleges will be bankrupt in 10 to 15 years ".

“Percentage of the U.S. population who have completed four years of college or more from 1940 to 2018, by gender”. “From supermarkets to super apps, Southeast Asian tech start-ups are looking to China not Silicon Valley”.

“News Analysis: China takes a risk with Gen Z's love affair with debt”. ^ “EU unemployment drops to the lowest level in nearly two decades: Eurostat”.

^ “Surge in teenagers setting up businesses, study suggests”. ' It's the smart thing to do': Canadian oil driller moves all its rigs to the U.S.” Business.

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“Morgan Stanley: Millennials, Gen Z set to boost the US economy”. “September unemployment rate falls to 3.5%, a 50-year low, as payrolls rise by 136,000”.

“For most U.S. workers, real wages have barely budged in decades”. “Fed chief Powell pushes back on negative interest rates”.

“Hiring Steady As Employers Add 136,000 Jobs; Unemployment Dips To 3.5%”. “UPDATE 1-Brazil's unemployment rate rises to 12.7%, reflects weak labor market”.

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^ “Sleep deprivation makes Scots teenage girls' anxiety worse”. “With teen mental health deteriorating over five years, there's a likely culprit”.

“Ongoing human evolution could explain recent rise in certain disorders”. “Digital device use leads to eye strain, even in kids”.

^ “10-fold surge in South Africa teens treated for HIV: Study”. “Almost half young adults now overweight or obese, new ABS data shows”.

“UK second only to Japan for young people's poor mental wellbeing”. “Stonewall Forever: 50 years after the raid that sparked the LGBTQ movement, monument goes digital”.

^ “Generation Z Looks a Lot Like Millennials on Key Social and Political Issues | Pew Research Center”. ^ “Infographic: Gen Z Voter and Political Views Election 2016”.

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“March for our Lives gun control rally only hints at the political power of Generation Z ". “NJ student march organizers pen op-ed to NRA We Won't Let You Win”.

^ “Dear National Rifle Association: We Won't Let You Win. ^ “Millennials Are No More Liberal On Gun Control Than Elders, Polls Show”.

^ Parker, Kim; Horowitz, Julianna Menace; Igielnik, Ruth; Elephant, J. Baxter; Brown, Anna (June 22, 2017). ^ “A Estrada dos candidates the Gerardo Z (in Portuguese).

^ “Generation Z Breaks Records in Education and Health Despite Growing Economic Instability of Their Families”. “Teenagers' Health, Educational Outcomes Improving, Report Finds”.

^ Jackson, Nicholas J.; ISEN, Joshua D.; Goddam, Rubin; Irons, Daniel; Tumbled, Catherine; Icon, William G.; McGee, Matt; Raise, Adrian; Baker, Laura A. “Impact of adolescent marijuana use on intelligence: Results from two longitudinal twin studies”.

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“Today's parents spend more time with their kids than moms and dads did 50 years ago”. “Fewer than half of U.S. kids today live in a 'traditional' family”.

“Ending Child Marriage: Progress and Prospects” (PDF). ^ a b “Mobile and interactive media use by young children: The good, the bad and the unknown”.

^ Barça, Gabriella; Bin, Manuela; Keller, Peggy S.; Gilbert, Lauren R.; Begot ti, Tatiana (November 1, 2015). “Internet use and developmental tasks: Adolescents' point of view”.

^ “Jason Dorsey TEDx Talk On Generation After Millennials: gen Gen Z ". “Owning a cell phone is right of passage for teenagers”.

Pew Research Center Internet Science Tech RSS. “CONSUMER INSIGHTS, J. WALTER THOMPSON INTELLIGENCE Meet Generation Z ".

' Irresistible' technology is making our kids miss social cues”. ^ Booker, Cara L.; Kelly, Yvonne J.; Sacker, Amanda (March 20, 2018).

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