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Wacko Jacko

author
Danielle Fletcher
• Monday, 21 June, 2021
• 89 min read

By the age of 50, he had amassed a vast fortune which allowed him to indulge every whim, no matter how strange it seemed to the outside world. It’s not clear who started the nickname but even in the 1980s, there were whispers in the tabloids that Michael was sleeping in an oxygen tank to maintain his youthful looks.

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Contents

However, as reported by the Sydney Morning Herald, this wasn’t exactly true, “a 1986 tale about him sleeping in an oxygen coffin and another story about him seeking to buy the bones of The Elephant Man were both fictions fed by Jackson to a hungry media.” He did, however, own a £22,000 gold-plated Egyptian sarcophagus. By 1987, Jackson had purchased his famous Neverland Ranch and over the next decade he would create his very own theme park with rides, a video arcade, and a zoo.

The cost of running Neverland was said to be £160,000 a month, and he showered his friends with expensive gifts, such as a $1 million necklace for Elizabeth Taylor. The WackoJacko moniker went into overdrive when Jackson started to drastically alter his appearance.

Around the same time, Jackson started to undergo plastic surgery which he claimed was to help him breathe. Looking at photos of Jackson show evidence of work done not only to his nose but also to his cheeks, lips and chin.

He took full custody of all three children and made sure that they were kept out of the public eye, wearing something to cover their faces whenever they were outside Neverland. For a celebrity such as Michael Jackson, this need for privacy can be understood, but this decision was met with critical scrutiny from the press.

There was also the unfortunate moment where he dangled his third child from a balcony, something he later said he regretted but was used at the time to show a lack of parenting skills. Michael Jackson passed away on June 25, 2009, and will be remembered both for his far-reaching effect on music and culture and for his extravagant lifestyle.

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He was rumored to have bought the Elephant Man's bones, Jackson allegedly shared a bed with a chimp and then married the daughter of another pop culture giant in a lifetime spent in the public eye. Over the years, his image changed from cute child star to that of a secretive singer who was the target of ridicule and devotion in equal measure.

The release of Thriller in 1982 made him a massive international superstar and the first cracks in his public persona began appearing not long afterwards. Around the same time, wild stories about his personal life began to circulate, including that he slept in an oxygen tent and had adopted a chimp called Bubbles.

His appearance at the Brit Awards in 1996 again pushed him on to the front pages when Pulp frontman Jarvis Cocker took exception to his bombastic performance of Earth Song and ran on to the stage. In 2002, he was criticized when he dangled his 11-month-old son Prince Michael II from the window of a Berlin hotel in front of an astounded crowd.

In what would prove to be his last public appearance in the UK, he put on a bizarre display that left the assembled journalists baffled. During a speech littered with long pauses, Jackson said: “I'll be performing the songs my fans want to hear.

Michael Joseph Jackson (August 29, 1958 – June 25, 2009) was an American singer, songwriter, and dancer. Dubbed the King of Pop “, he is regarded as one of the most significant cultural figures of the 20th century.

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Through stage and video performances, he popularized complicated dance techniques such as the moonwalk, to which he gave the name, and the robot. His sound and style have influenced artists of various genres, and his contributions to music, dance, and fashion, along with his publicized personal life, made him a global figure in popular culture for over four decades.

Jackson is the most awarded artist in the history of popular music. The eighth child of the Jackson family, Jackson made his professional debut in 1964 with his elder brothers Jackie, Tito, Jermaine, and Marlon as a member of the Jackson 5.

Jackson began his solo career in 1971 while at Motown Records, and rose to solo stardom with his fifth studio album Off the Wall (1979) during the peak of the . By the early 1980s, Jackson became a dominant figure in popular music.

His music videos, including those for Beat It “, Billie Jean “, and Thriller from his sixth studio album Thriller (1982), are credited with breaking racial barriers and transforming the medium into an art form and promotional tool. Jackson's prominence propelled him and the television channel MTV into cultural phenomenons of 1980s pop culture.

Jackson continued to innovate with videos on the global best-seller albums Bad (1987), Dangerous (1991), and History: Past, Present and Future, Book I (1995). Starting in the late 1980s, Jackson became a figure of controversy and speculation due to his changing appearance, relationships, behavior and lifestyle.

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In 1993, he was accused of sexually abusing the child of a family friend. The lawsuit was settled out of court, and Jackson was not indicted.

In 2005, he was tried and acquitted of further child sexual abuse allegations and several other charges. Four years later, while preparing for a series of comeback concerts, This Is It, Jackson died from an overdose of propofol administered by his personal physician, Conrad Murray.

Fans around the world expressed their grief, and Jackson's public memorial service was broadcast live. In August 2009, the Los Angeles County Coroner ruled that Jackson's death was a homicide, and Murray was convicted of involuntary manslaughter in November 2011.

Seven years later, the documentary Leaving Neverland, which detailed allegations of child sexual abuse, led to another media backlash against Jackson. Jackson is one of the best-selling music artists of all time, with estimated sales of over 350million records worldwide.

Thriller is the best-selling album of all time, with estimated sales of 66million copies worldwide. In addition, the remix album Blood on the Dance Floor: History in the Mix (1997) is the best-selling remix album of all time.

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Bad was the first album to produce five Billboard Hot 100 number-one singles. Jackson had 13 Billboard Hot 100 number-one singles, more than any other male artist in the Hot 100 era, and was also the first artist to have a top ten single in the Billboard Hot 100 in five different decades.

He received 13 Grammy Awards, the Grammy Legend and Grammy Lifetime Achievement awards, six Brit Awards, a Golden Globe Award, and 39 Guinness World Records, including the “Most Successful Entertainer of All Time”. Jackson's inductions include the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame twice, the Vocal Group Hall of Fame, the Songwriters Hall of Fame, the Dance Hall of Fame (the only recording artist to be inducted), and the Rhythm and Blues Music Hall of Fame.

In 2016, his estate earned $825million, the highest yearly amount for a celebrity ever recorded by Forbes. Jackson's childhood home in Gary, Indiana, pictured in March 2010 with floral tributes after his death Michael Joseph Jackson was born in Gary, Indiana, near Chicago, on August 29, 1958.

He was the eighth of ten children in the Jackson family, a working-class African-American family living in a two-bedroom house on Jackson Street. His mother, Katherine Esther Jackson (née Cruse), played clarinet and piano, had aspired to be a country-and-western performer, and worked part-time at Sears.

His father, Joseph Walter “Joe” Jackson, a former boxer, was a crane operator at U.S. Steel and played guitar with a local rhythm and blues band, the Falcons, to supplement the family's income. Joe's great-grandfather, July “Jack” Gale, was a US Army scout ; family lore held that he was also “a Native American medicine man “.

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Michael grew up with three sisters (Debbie, La Toy, and Janet) and five brothers (Jackie, Tito, Jermaine, Marlon, and Randy). A sixth brother, Marlon's twin Brandon, died shortly after birth.

Joe acknowledged that he regularly whipped Michael; Michael said his father told him he had a “fat nose,” and regularly physically and emotionally abused him during rehearsals. He recalled that Joe often sat in a chair with a belt in his hand as he and his siblings rehearsed, ready to physically punish any mistakes.

Katherine Jackson stated that although whipping is considered abuse in more modern times, it was a common way to discipline children when Michael was growing up. Jackie, Tito, Jermaine and Marlon have said that their father was not abusive and that the whippings, which were harder on Michael because he was younger, kept them disciplined and out of trouble.

The following year, the group won a talent show; Michael performed the dance to Robert Parker's 1965 song Barefoot in' and singing lead to The Temptations “ My Girl “. From 1966 to 1968 they toured the Midwest ; they frequently played at a string of black clubs known as the Caitlin' Circuit as the opening act for artists such as Sam & Dave, the O'Jays, Gladys Knight, and Etta James.

The Jackson 5 also performed at clubs and cocktail lounges, where striptease shows were featured, and at local auditoriums and high school dances. In August 1967, while touring the East Coast, they won a weekly amateur night concert at the Apollo Theater in Harlem.

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The group were among the first African American performers to attain a crossover following. Taylor also produced some of their early recordings for the label, including a version of Who's Loving' You “.

The Jackson 5 made their first television appearance in 1969 in the Miss Black America Pageant where they performed a cover of It's Your Thing “. Rolling Stone later described the young Michael as “a prodigy” with “overwhelming musical gifts” who “quickly emerged as the main draw and lead singer”.

In May 1971, the Jackson family moved into a large house on a two-acre estate in Engine, California. During this period, Michael developed from a child performer into a teen idol.

As he emerged as a solo performer in the early 1970s, he maintained ties to the Jackson 5. Between 1972 and 1975, Michael released four solo studio albums with Motown: Got to Be There (1972), Ben (1972), Music & Me (1973), and Forever, Michael (1975).

Got to Be There and Ben “, the title tracks from his first two solo albums, sold well as singles, as did a cover of Bobby Day's Rocking' Robin “. Their younger brother Randy joined the band around this time; Jermaine stayed with Motown and pursued a solo career.

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The Jacksons continued to tour internationally, and released six more albums between 1976 and 1984. Michael, the group's main songwriter during this time, wrote songs such as Shake Your Body (Down to the Ground) (1979), This Place Hotel (1980), and Can You Feel It (1980).

Jackson's fifth solo album, Off the Wall (1979), established him as a solo performer and helped him move from the bubblegum pop of his youth to more complex sounds. It produced four top 10 entries in the US: Off the Wall “, She's Out of My Life “, and the chart-topping singles Don't Stop 'Til You Get Enough and Rock with You “.

The album reached number three on the US Billboard 200 and sold over 20million copies worldwide. He also won a Grammy Award for Best Male R&B Vocal Performance for 1979 with “Don't Stop 'Til You Get Enough”.

In 1981 Jackson was the American Music Awards winner for Favorite Soul/R&B Album and Favorite Soul/R&B Male Artist. Jackson felt Off the Wall should have made a bigger impact, and was determined to exceed expectations with his next release.

In 1980, he secured the highest royalty rate in the music industry: 37 percent of wholesale album profit. Jackson recorded with Queen singer Freddie Mercury from 1981 to 1983, recording demos of State of Shock “, “Victory” and “There Must Be More to Life Than This”.

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The recordings were intended for an album of duets but, according to Queen's manager Jim Beach, the relationship soured when Jackson brought a llama into the recording studio, and Jackson was upset by Mercury's drug use. In 1982, Jackson contributed “Someone in the Dark” to the audiobook for the film E.T.

Jackson's sixth album, Thriller, was released in late 1982. It was the first album to produce seven Billboard Hot 100 top-10 singles, including Billie Jean “, Beat It “, and Want to Be Starting' Something' “.

On March 25, 1983, Jackson reunited with his brothers for Motown 25: Yesterday, Today, Forever, an NBC television special. The show aired on May 16 to an estimated audience of 47 million, and featured the Jacksons and other Motown stars.

Jackson's solo performance of “Billie Jean” earned him his first Emmy Award nomination. Wearing a glove decorated with rhinestones, he debuted his moonwalk dance, which Jeffrey Daniel had taught him three years earlier, and it became his signature dance in his repertoire.

Jackson had originally turned down the invitation to the show, believing he had been doing too much television. But at the request of Motown founder Berry Gordy, he performed in exchange for an opportunity to do a solo performance.

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Rolling Stone reporter Mikael Gilmore called the performance “extraordinary”. Jackson's performance drew comparisons to Elvis Presley's and the Beatles appearances on The Ed Sullivan Show.

Anna Kissoff of The New York Times praised the perfect timing and technique involved in the dance. Winning eight Grammys in one ceremony is a record he holds with the band Santana.

Jackson and Quincy Jones won the award for Producer of the Year (Non-Classical). Thriller won Album of the Year (with Jackson as the album's artist and Jones as its co-producer), and the single won Best Pop Vocal Performance (Male) award for Jackson.

“Beat It” won Record of the Year and Best Rock Vocal Performance (Male). “Billie Jean” won two Grammy Awards: Best R&B Song and Best R&B Vocal Performance (Male), with Jackson as songwriter and singer respectively.

Thriller also won the Grammy for Best Engineered Recording (Non-Classical), acknowledging Bruce Sweden for his work on the album. Jackson had the highest royalty rate in the music industry at that point, with about $2 for every album sold (equivalent to $5 in 2019), and was making record-breaking profits.

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Dolls modeled after Jackson appeared in stores in May 1984 for $12 each. In the same year, The Making of Michael Jackson's Thriller, a music documentary, won a Grammy for Best Music Video (Long form).

Time described Jackson's influence at that point as “star of records, radio, rock video. A one-man rescue team for the music business.

The New York Times wrote “in the world of pop music, there is Michael Jackson and there is everybody else.” In November 1983, Jackson and his brothers partnered with PepsiCo in a $5million promotional deal that broke records for a celebrity endorsement (equivalent to $12,834,948 in 2019).

The first Pepsi campaign, which ran in the US from 1983 to 1984 and launched its “New Generation” theme, included tour sponsorship, public relations events, and in-store displays. Jackson helped to create the advertisement, and suggested using his song “Billie Jean”, with revised lyrics, as its jingle.

On January 27, 1984, Michael and other members of the Jacksons filmed a Pepsi commercial overseen by Phil Dysentery, a BBD ad agency executive, and Alan Potash, Pepsi's Worldwide Creative Director, at the Shrine Auditorium in Los Angeles. During a simulated concert before a full house of fans, pyrotechnics accidentally set Jackson's hair on fire, causing second-degree burns to his scalp.

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Jackson underwent treatment to hide the scars and had his third rhinoplasty shortly thereafter. Pepsi settled out of court, and Jackson donated the $1.5million settlement to the Roman Medical Center in Culver City, California ; its Michael Jackson Burn Center is named in his honor.

Jackson signed a second agreement with Pepsi in the late 1980s for $10million. The second campaign covered 20 countries and provided financial support for Jackson's Bad album and 1987–88 world tour.

The Victory Tour of 1984 headlined the Jacksons and showcased Jackson's new solo material to more than two million Americans. Following, Jackson donated his share of the proceeds, an estimated $3 to 5 million, to charity.

During the last concert of the Victory Tour at the Dodger Stadium in Los Angeles, Jackson announced his split from The Jacksons during “Shake Your Body”. His charitable work continued with the release of We Are the World (1985), co-written with Lionel Richie, which raised money for the poor in the US and Africa.

It earned $63million (equivalent to $149,761,448 in 2019), and became one of the best-selling singles of all time, with 20million copies sold. It won four Grammy Awards in 1985, including Song of the Year for Jackson and Richie as its writers.

The project's creators received two special American Music Awards honors: one for the creation of the song and another for the USA for Africa idea. Jackson, Jones, and promoter Ken Kraken received special awards for their roles in the song's creation.

Jackson collaborated with Paul McCartney in the early 1980s, and learned that McCartney was making $40million a year from owning the rights to other artists' songs. By 1983, Jackson had begun buying publishing rights to others' songs, but he was careful with his acquisitions, only bidding on a few of the dozens that were offered to him.

Jackson's early acquisitions of music catalogs and song copyrights such as the Sly Stone collection included “Everyday People” (1968), Len Barry's 1–2–3 (1965), and Dion DiMucci's The Wanderer (1961) and Runaround Sue (1961). In 1984 Robert Holmes à Court announced he was selling the ATV Music Publishing catalog comprising the publishing rights to nearly 4000 songs, including most of the Beatles' material.

When Jackson and McCartney were unable to make a joint purchase, McCartney did not want to be the sole owner of the Beatles' songs, and did not pursue an offer on his own. Jackson's agents were unable to come to a deal, and in May 1985 left talks after having spent more than $1million and four months of due diligence work on the negotiations.

In June 1985, Jackson and Branch learned that Charles Koppelman's and Marty Bandier's The Entertainment Company had made a tentative offer to buy ATV Music for $50million; in early August, Holmes à Court contacted Jackson and talks resumed. Jackson's increased bid of $47.5million (equivalent to $112,915,377 in 2019) was accepted because he could close the deal more quickly, having already completed due diligence.

Jackson also agreed to visit Holmes à Court in Australia, where he would appear on the Channel Seven Perth Telethon. Jackson's purchase of ATV Music was finalized on August 10, 1985.

Jackson's skin had been medium-brown during his youth, but from the mid-1980s gradually grew paler. The change drew widespread media coverage, including speculation that he had been bleaching his skin.

Jackson's dermatologist, Arnold Klein, said he observed in 1983 that Jackson had vitiligo, a condition characterized by patches of the skin losing their pigment, and sensitivity to sunlight. He also identified discoid lupus erythematous in Jackson.

He diagnosed Jackson with lupus that year, and with vitiligo in 1986. Vitiligo's drastic effects on the body can cause psychological distress.

Jackson used fair-colored makeup, and possibly skin-bleaching prescription creams, to cover up the uneven blotches of color caused by the illness. The creams would have further lightened his skin, and, with the application of makeup, he could appear very pale.

Jackson said he had not purposely bleached his skin and could not control his vitiligo, adding, “When people make up stories that I don't want to be who I am, it hurts me.” Rowe later became Jackson's second wife and the mother of his first two children.

He said he lost weight in the early 1980s because of a change in diet to achieve a dancer's body. Witnesses reported that he was often dizzy, and speculated he was suffering from anorexia nervosa.

She said her son had received more than the two cosmetic surgeries he claimed and speculated that he was addicted to them. In 1986, tabloids reported that Jackson slept in a hyperbaric oxygen chamber to slow aging, and pictured him lying in a glass box.

The claim was untrue, and tabloids reported that he spread the story himself. It was also reported, by the tabloids, that Jackson took female hormone shots to keep his voice high and facial hair wispy, proposed to Elizabeth Taylor and possibly had a shrine of her, and had cosmetic surgery on his eyes.

When Jackson took his pet chimpanzee Bubbles to tour in Japan, their public appearances caused a stir in the media. They portrayed Jackson as an aspiring Disney cartoon character who befriended various animals.

Meanwhile, it was also reported that Jackson had offered to buy the bones of Joseph Merrick (the “Elephant Man”). In June 1987, the Chicago Tribune reported Jackson's publicist bidding $1million for the skeleton to the London Hospital Medical College on his behalf.

Dildo said Jackson had an “absorbing interest” in Merrick, “purely based on his awareness of the ethical, medical and historical significance.” These tabloid stories inspired the name WackoJacko, ” which Jackson came to despise.

Jack was subsequently used in Cockney slang to refer to monkeys in general, hence a racist connotation behind the name. In 1987, Rolling Stone described Jackson as “the flighty-genius star-child, a celebrity virtually all his life, who dwells in a fairy-tale kingdom of fellow celebrities, animals, mannequins and cartoons, who provides endless fodder for the tabloids....

But it’s the same child in Michael who inspires the artistry that fuels all the subsidiary industries, who turns his primal fears and fantasies into wondrous, hyperkinetic and emotional music.” Jackson's first album in five years, Bad (1987), was highly anticipated, with the industry expecting another major success.

It became the first album to produce five US number-one singles: I Just Can't Stop Loving You “, Bad “, The Way You Make Me Feel “, Man in the Mirror “, and Dirty Diana “. Another song, Smooth Criminal “, peaked at number seven.

The Bad world tour ran from September 12, 1987, to January 14, 1989. In Japan, the tour had 14 sellouts and drew 570,000 people, nearly tripling the previous record for a single tour.

The 504,000 people who attended seven sold-out shows at Wembley Stadium set a new Guinness World Record. In 1988, Jackson released his autobiography, Moonwalk, with input from Stephen Davis and Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis.

It sold 200,000 copies, and reached the top of the New York Times bestsellers list. He attributed his changing facial appearance to three plastic surgeries, puberty, weight loss, a strict vegetarian diet, a change in hairstyle, and stage lighting.

In October, Jackson released a film, Moon walker, which featured live footage and short films starring Jackson and Joe Pesci. In March 1988, Jackson purchased 2,700 acres (11 km 2) of land near Santa Inez, California, to build a new home, Neverland Ranch, at a cost of $17million (equivalent to $36,750,422 in 2019).

President George H. W. Bush designated him the White House's “Artist of the Decade”. From 1985 to 1990, Jackson donated $455,000 to the United Afro-American College Fund, and all profits from his single “Man in the Mirror” went to charity.

His rendition of “You Were There” at Sammy Davis Jr.'s 60th birthday celebration won Jackson a second Emmy nomination. In March 1991, Jackson renewed his contract with Sony for $65million (equivalent to $122,011,972 in 2019), a record-breaking deal, beating Neil Diamond's renewal contract with Columbia Records.

In 1991, he released his eighth album, Dangerous, co-produced with Teddy Riley. It was certified seven times platinum in the US, and by 2008 had sold 30million copies worldwide.

In the US, the first single, Black or White “, was the album's highest charting song; it was number one on the Billboard Hot 100 for seven weeks and achieved similar chart performances worldwide. At the end of 1992, Dangerous was the best-selling album of the year worldwide and “Black or White” the best-selling single of the year worldwide at the Billboard Music Awards.

In 1993, he performed “Remember the Time” at the Soul Train Music Awards in a chair, saying he twisted his ankle during dance rehearsals. In the UK, Heal the World made No.

Jackson founded the Heal the World Foundation in 1992. The charity brought underprivileged children to Jackson's ranch to use the theme park rides, and sent millions of dollars around the globe to help children threatened by war, poverty, and disease.

That July, Jackson published his second book, Dancing the Dream, a collection of poetry. The Dangerous World Tour ran between June 1992 and November 1993 and grossed $100 million (equivalent to $176,986,869 in 2019); Jackson performed for 3.5million people in 70 concerts, all of which were outside the US.

Part of the proceeds went to Heal the World Foundation. Jackson sold the broadcast rights of the tour to HBO for $20million, a record-breaking deal that still stands.

Following the death of HIV/AIDS spokesperson and friend Ryan White, Jackson pleaded with the Clinton administration at Bill Clinton's inaugural gala to give more money to HIV/AIDS charities and research and performed Gone Too Soon “, a song dedicated to White, and “Heal the World” at the gala. Jackson visited Africa in early 1992; on his first stop in Gabon he was greeted by more than 100,000 people, some of them carrying signs that read “Welcome Home Michael”.

During his trip to the Ivory Coast, Jackson was crowned “King San” by a tribal chief. He thanked the dignitaries in French and English, signed documents formalizing his kingship, and sat on a golden throne while presiding over ceremonial dances.

In January 1993, Jackson performed at the Super Bowl XXVII halftime show in Pasadena, California. The NFL sought a big-name artist to keep ratings high during halftime following dwindling audience figures.

It was the first Super Bowl whose half-time performance drew greater audience figures than the game. Jackson played Jam “, “Billie Jean”, “Black or White”, and “Heal the World”.

Dangerous rose 90 places on the album chart after the performance. Jackson gave a 90-minute interview to Winfrey on February 10, 1993.

He spoke of his childhood abuse at the hands of his father; he believed he had missed out on much of his childhood, and said that he often cried from loneliness. He denied tabloid rumors that he had bought the bones of the Elephant Man, slept in a hyperbaric oxygen chamber, or bleached his skin, and stated for the first time that he had vitiligo.

Dangerous re-entered the album chart in the top 10, more than a year after its release. In January 1993, Jackson won three American Music Awards : Favorite Pop/Rock Album (Dangerous), Favorite Soul/R&B Single (“Remember the Time”), and was the first to win the International Artist Award of Excellence.

In February, he won the “Living Legend Award” at the 35th Annual Grammy Awards in Los Angeles. He attended the award ceremony with Brooke Shields.

Jordan said he and Jackson had engaged in acts of kissing, masturbation and oral sex. Jordan's mother initially told police that she did not believe Jackson had molested her son; however, her position wavered a few days later.

Evan was recorded discussing his intention to pursue charges, which Jackson used to argue that he was the victim of a jealous father trying to extort money. Jackson's older sister La Toy accused him of being a pedophile, which she later retracted.

Police raided Jackson's home in December and found books and photographs featuring young boys with little or no clothing. The books were legal to own, and Jackson was not indicted.

Jordan Chandler gave police a description of Jackson's genitals. A strip search was made, and the jurors felt the description was not a match.

In January 1994, Jackson settled with the Chandlers out of court for $25million (equivalent to $43,124,158 in 2019). Citing a lack of evidence without Jordan's testimony, the state closed its investigation on September 22, 1994.

Jackson had been taking painkillers for his reconstructive scalp surgeries, administered due to the Pepsi commercial accident in 1984, and became dependent on them to cope with the stress of the sexual abuse allegations. On November 12, 1993, Jackson canceled the remainder of the Dangerous Tour due to health problems, stress from the allegations and painkiller addiction.

He thanked close friend Elizabeth Taylor for support, encouragement and counsel. In late 1993 Jackson proposed to Lisa Marie Presley, daughter of Elvis Presley, over the phone.

They married in La Vega, Dominican Republic in May 1994 by civil judge Hugo Francisco Alvarez Perez. The tabloid media speculated that the wedding was a publicity stunt to deflect Jackson's sexual abuse allegations and jump-start Presley's career as a singer.

Their marriage ended little more than a year later, and they separated in December 1995. Presley cited “irreconcilable differences” when filing for divorce the next month and only sought to reclaim her maiden name as her settlement.

After the divorce, Judge Perez said, “They lasted longer than I thought they would. In June 1995, Jackson released the double album History: Past, Present and Future, Book I.

The first disc, History Begins, is the greatest hits album (reissued in 2001 as Greatest Hits: History, Volume I). The second disc, History Continues, contains 13 original songs and two cover versions.

The album debuted at number one on the charts and has been certified for seven million shipments in the US. It is the best-selling multi-disc album of all time, with 20million copies (40million units) sold worldwide.

History received a Grammy nomination for Album of the Year. The New York Times reviewed it as “the testimony of a musician whose self-pity now equals his talent”.

The first single from History was Scream / Childhood “. “Scream”, a duet with Jackson's youngest sister Janet, protests the media's treatment of Jackson during the 1993 child abuse allegations against him.

The single made number five on the Billboard Hot 100, and received a Grammy nomination for “Best Pop Collaboration with Vocals”. The second single, You Are Not Alone “, holds the Guinness world record for the first song to debut at number one on the Billboard Hot 100 chart.

It received a Grammy nomination for “Best Pop Vocal Performance” in 1995. In late 1995, Jackson was admitted to a hospital after collapsing during rehearsals for a televised performance, caused by a stress-related panic attack.

He retained ownership of half the company, earning $95million up front (equivalent to $159,398,340 in 2019) as well as the rights to more songs. “ Earth Song was the third single released from History, and topped the UK Singles Chart for six weeks over Christmas 1995.

At the 1996 Brit Awards, Jackson's performance of “Earth Song” was disrupted by Pulp singer Jarvis Cocker, who was protesting what Cocker saw as Jackson's “Christ-like” persona. Jackson said the stage invasion was “disgusting and cowardly”.

In 1996, Jackson won a Grammy for Best Music Video, Short Form, for “Scream” and an American Music Award for Favorite Pop/Rock Male Artist. He performed 82 concerts in five continents, 35 countries and 58 cities to over 4.5million fans, his most attended tour.

During the tour, in Sydney, Australia, Jackson married Debbie Rowe, a dermatology nurse, who was six months pregnant with his first child. Michael Joseph Jackson Jr. (commonly known as Prince) was born on February 13, 1997; his sister Paris-Michael Katherine Jackson was born a year later on April 3, 1998.

In 2004, after the second child abuse allegations against Jackson, she returned to court to reclaim custody. From October 1997 to September 2001, Jackson worked on his tenth solo album, Invincible, which cost $30 million to record.

In June 1999, Jackson joined Luciano Pavarotti for a War Child benefit concert in Modena, Italy. The show raised a million dollars for refugees of the Kosovo War, and additional funds for the children of Guatemala.

Later that month, Jackson organized a series of “Michael Jackson & Friends” benefit concerts in Germany and Korea. Other artists involved included Slash, The Scorpions, Boy II Men, Luther Van dross, Mariah Carey, A. R. Rahman, Prabhat Devi Sunday, Shana, Andrea Bocelli, and Luciano Pavarotti.

The proceeds went to the Nelson Mandela Children's Fund, the Red Cross and UNESCO. From August 1999 to 2000, he lived in New York City at 4 East 74th Street.

At the turn of the century, Jackson won an American Music Award as Artist of the 1980s. In 2000, Guinness World Records recognized him for supporting 39 charities, more than any other entertainer.

In September 2001, two 30th Anniversary concerts were held at Madison Square Garden to mark Jackson's 30th year as a solo artist. The show also featured MYA, Usher, Whitney Houston, Destiny's Child, Monica, Liza Minnelli, and Slash.

The first show was marred by technical lapses, and the crowd booed a speech by Marlon Brando. Almost 30million people watched the television broadcast of the shows in November.

After 9/11, Jackson helped organize the United We Stand: What More Can I Give benefit concert at JFK Stadium in Washington, D.C. on October 21, 2001. The release of Invincible was preceded by a dispute between Jackson and his record label, Sony Music Entertainment.

Jackson had expected the licenses to the masters of his albums to revert to him in the early 2000s, after which he would be able to promote the material however he pleased and keep the profits, but clauses in the contract set the revert date years into the future. Jackson sought an early exit from his contract.

It debuted at number one in 13 countries and went on to sell 6million copies worldwide, receiving double-platinum certification in the US. On January 9, 2002, Jackson won his 22nd American Music Award for Artist of the Century.

Later that year, an anonymous surrogate mother gave birth to his third child, Prince Michael Jackson II (nicknamed “Blanket”), who had been conceived by artificial insemination. On November 20, Jackson briefly held Blanket over the railing of his Berlin hotel room, four stories above ground level, prompting widespread criticism in the media.

Jackson apologized for the incident, calling it “a terrible mistake.” On January 22, promoter Marcel Abram filed a breach of contract complaint against Jackson for failing to perform two planned 1999 concerts.

In March, a Santa Maria jury ordered Jackson to pay Abram $5.3million. On December 18, 2003, Jackson's attorneys dropped all appeals on the verdict and settled the lawsuit for an undisclosed amount.

On April 24, 2002, Jackson performed at Apollo Theater. The concert was a fundraiser for the Democratic National Committee and former President Bill Clinton.

The money collected would be used to encourage citizens to vote. In July 2002, Jackson called Sony Music chairman Tommy Motto la “a racist, and very, very, very devilish,” and someone who exploits black artists for his own gain, at Al Sharpton'national Action Network in Harlem.

The accusation prompted Sharpton to form a coalition investigating whether Motto la exploited black artists. Jackson also charged that Motto la had called his colleague IRA Gotta a “fat nigger “.

Responding to those attacks, Sony issued a statement calling them “ludicrous, spiteful, and hurtful” and defended Motto la as someone who had championed Jackson's career for many years. Sony ultimately refused to renew Jackson's contract and claimed that a $25 million promotional campaign had failed because Jackson refused to tour in the US for Invincible.

Jackson's mug shot, taken on November 20, 2003Beginning in May 2002, a documentary film crew led by Martin Bashar followed Jackson for several months. The documentary, broadcast in February 2003 as Living with Michael Jackson, showed Jackson holding hands and discussing sleeping arrangements with a 12-year-old boy.

He also said that he saw nothing wrong with having sleepovers with minors and sharing his bed and bedroom with various people, which aroused controversy. He insisted that the sleepovers were not sexual and that his words had been misunderstood.

On December 18, 2003, Santa Barbara authorities charged Jackson with seven counts of child molestation and two counts of intoxicating a minor with alcoholic drinks. Jackson denied the allegations and pleaded not guilty.

The People v. Jackson trial began on January 31, 2005, in Santa Maria, California, and lasted until the end of May. Jackson found the experience stressful, and it affected his health.

If convicted, he would have faced up to 20 years in prison. After the trial, he became reclusive and moved to Bahrain as a guest of Sheikh Abdullah.

Jermaine Jackson later said the family had planned to send Michael there had he been convicted. On November 18, 2003, Sony released Number Ones, the greatest hits compilation.

In April 2006, Jackson agreed to use a piece of his ATV catalog stake, then worth about $1billion, as collateral against his $270million worth of loans from Bank of America. Bank of America had sold the loans to Fortress Investments, an investment company that buys distressed loans, the year before.

As part of the agreement, Fortress Investments provided Jackson a new loan of $300million with reduced interest payments (equivalent to $380,472,103 in 2019). Sony Music would have the option to buy half of his stake, or about 25% of the catalog, at a set price.

Jackson's financial managers had urged him to shed part of his stake to avoid bankruptcy. The main house at Neverland Ranch was closed as a cost-cutting measure, while Jackson lived in Bahrain at the hospitality of Sheik Abdullah, the ruler's son.

At least 30 of Jackson's employees had not been paid on time and were owed $306,000 in back wages; Jackson was ordered to pay $100,000 in penalties. In early 2006, it was announced that Jackson had signed a contract with a Bahrain-based startup, Two Seas Records; nothing came of the deal, and Two Seas CEO Guy Holmes later said it was never finalized.

That October, Fox News reported that Jackson had been recording at a studio in County Vestments, Ireland. It was not known what Jackson was working on, or who had paid for the sessions; his publicist stated that he had left Two Seas by then.

During his period in Ireland he sought out Patrick Treaty for cosmetic treatment after reading about his experience with hyaluronic acid fillers and his charitable work in Africa. In November 2006, Jackson invited an Access Hollywood camera crew into the studio in Vestments, and MSNBC reported that he was working on a new album, produced by will.i.am.

On November 15, Jackson performed at the World Music Awards in London and accepted the Diamond Award honoring the sale of over 100 million records. He returned to the US in December 2006 to attend James Brown's funeral in Augusta, Georgia, where he gave a eulogy calling Brown his greatest inspiration.

In 2007, Jackson and Sony bought another music publishing company, Famous Music LLC, formerly owned by Viacom. The deal gave him the rights to songs by Eminem and Beck, among others.

In March 2007, Jackson gave a brief interview to the Associated Press in Tokyo, in which he said he had no regrets about his lifelong career despite difficulties and “deliberate attempts to hurt ”. That month, Jackson visited a US Army post in Japan, Camp Rama, to greet over 3,000 troops and their families.

In September 2007, Jackson was still working on his next album, which he never completed. In 2008, Jackson and Sony released Thriller 25 to mark the album's 25th anniversary.

Two remixes were released as singles: The Girl Is Mine 2008 (with will.i.am), based on a demo version without Paul McCartney, and Want to Be Starting' Something' 2008 with Akin. For Jackson's 50th birthday, Sony BMG released a series of greatest hits albums titled King of Pop.

Different versions were released in various countries, based on polls of local fans. An aerial view of part of Jackson's 2,800-acre (11 km 2) Neverland Valley Ranch near Los Olives, California, showing the rides In 2008, Fortress Investments threatened to foreclose on Neverland Ranch, which Jackson had used as collateral for his loans.

Fortress sold Jackson's debts to Colony Capital LLC. In November, Jackson transferred Neverland Ranch's title to Sycamore Valley Ranch Company LLC, a joint venture between Jackson and Colony Capital LLC.

Jackson arranged to sell a large collection of his memorabilia of more than 1,000 items through Julien's Auction House. On the eve of the first public exhibit, Jackson canceled the auction after earning between $200million to $300million of initial sales from a series of concerts to be held in London.

In March 2009, amid speculation about his finances and health, Jackson announced a series of comeback concerts, This Is It, at a press conference at The O2 Arena. The shows were to be his first major concerts since the History World Tour that ended in 1997.

The initial plan was for 10 concerts in London, followed by shows in Paris, New York City and Mumbai. Randy Phillips, president and chief executive of AEG Live, predicted the first 10 dates would earn Jackson £50million.

The London residency was increased to 50 dates after record-breaking ticket sales; over one million were sold in less than two hours. Jackson rehearsed in Los Angeles in the weeks leading up to the tour under the direction of choreographer Kenny Ortega, whom he worked with during his previous tours.

Most rehearsals took place at the Staples Center owned by AEG. Fans placed flowers and notes on Jackson's star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame on the day of his death June 25, 2009, less than three weeks before the first This Is It show was due to begin in London, with all concerts sold out, Jackson died from cardiac arrest.

Conrad Murray, his personal physician, had given Jackson various medications to help him sleep at his rented mansion in Holy Hills, Los Angeles. Paramedics received a 911 call at 12:22 pm Pacific time (19:22 UTC), and arrived three minutes later.

Resuscitation efforts continued en route to Ronald Reagan UCLA Medical Center, and for more than an hour after arriving there, but were unsuccessful, and he was pronounced dead at 2:26 pm Pacific time (21:26 UTC). News of his death spread quickly online, causing websites to slow down and crash from user overload, and putting unprecedented strain on services and websites including Google, AOL Instant Messenger, Twitter, and Wikipedia.

MTV briefly returned to its original music video format, and aired hours of Jackson's music videos, with live news specials featuring reactions from MTV personalities and other celebrities. Jackson's unmarked crypt at the end of the Sanctuary of Ascension in the Holly Terrace of the Great Mausoleum, Forest Lawn Glendale Jackson's memorial was held on July 7, 2009, at the Staples Center in Los Angeles, preceded by a private family service at Forest Lawn Memorial Park's Hall of Liberty.

The memorial service was one of the most watched events in streaming history, with and estimated US audience of 31.1million. Mariah Carey, Stevie Wonder, Lionel Richie, Jennifer Hudson, and Shaheen Jafargholi performed at the event.

Smokey Robinson and Queen Latifah gave eulogies. Al Sharpton received a standing ovation with cheers when he told Jackson's children, “Wasn't nothing strange about your father.

Jackson's 11-year-old daughter Paris Katherine, speaking publicly for the first time, wept as she addressed the crowd. Lucius Smith provided a closing prayer.

Jackson's body was entombed on September 3, 2009, at Forest Lawn Memorial Park in Glendale, California. On June 25, 2010, the first anniversary of Jackson's death, fans, family and friends visited Jackson's star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame, his family home, and Forest Lawn Memorial Park.

Fans visiting the makeshift memorial set up outside the Neverland Ranch entrance shortly after Jackson's death. Murray's trial took place from September 27 to November 7, 2011, and he was found guilty of involuntary manslaughter and held without bail to await sentencing. 22 days after the trial ended, Murray received the maximum sentence of four years in prison.

He was released on October 28, 2013 due to California prison overcrowding and good behavior. At the 2009 American Music Awards, Jackson won four posthumous awards, including two for his compilation album Number Ones, bringing his total American Music Awards to 26.

Jackson also became the first artist to have four of the top 20 best-selling albums in a single year in the US. On March 16, 2010, following the surge in sales, Sony Music signed a $250million deal (equivalent to $293,110,026 in 2019) with the Jackson estate to extend their distribution rights to Jackson's back catalog until at least 2017; it had been due to expire in 2015.

It was the most expensive music contract for a single artist in history. They also agreed to release ten albums of previously unreleased material and new collections of released work.

In 2017, Sony Music Entertainment extended its deal with the estate; that July, a Los Angeles court awarded Jones $9.4million of disputed royalty payments for Off the Wall, Thriller and Bad. In July 2018, Sony/ATV bought the estate's stake in EMI for $287.5million.

In 2014, Jackson became the first artist to have a top ten single in the Billboard Hot 100 in five different decades. In December 2015, Thriller was certified for 30million shipments by the RIAA, one of only two albums to do so in the US.

A year later, it was certified at 33× platinum, after Sound scan added streams and audio downloads to album certifications. The first posthumous Jackson song, This Is It “, co-written in the 1980s with Paul Anna, was released in October 2009.

The surviving Jackson brothers reunited to record backing vocals. On October 28, 2009, Sony released a documentary film about the rehearsals, Michael Jackson's This Is It.

Despite a limited two-week engagement, it became the highest-grossing documentary or concert film ever, with earnings of more than $260 million worldwide. The film was accompanied by a compilation album of the same name.

In late 2010, Sony released the first posthumous album, Michael and the promotional single Breaking News “. Jackson collaborator Will.i.am expressed “disgust” regarding the posthumous album, Michael, explaining that Jackson was such a perfectionist that he would not release them without his approval.

In October 2011, the theater company Cirque du Soleil launched Michael Jackson: The Immortal World Tour, a $57-million production, in Montreal, with a permanent show resident in Las Vegas. A larger and more theatrical Cirque show, Michael Jackson: One, designed for residency at the Mandalay Bay resort in Las Vegas, opened on May 23, 2013, in a renovated theater.

A jukebox musical, Don't Stop 'Til You Get Enough, is due to debut on Broadway in mid-2020. The musical is directed and choreographed by Christopher Wheel don and features a book by Lynn Cottage.

A developmental lab for the musical was delayed and a pre-Broadway run in Chicago was canceled in the wake of the renewed claims of child sexual abuse. In 2012, in an attempt to end a family dispute, Jackson's brother Jermaine retracted his signature on a public letter criticizing executors of Jackson's estate and his mother's advisers over the legitimacy of his brother's will.

A duet between Jackson and Justin Timberlake titled Love Never Felt So Good was released in 2014, which made him the first artist to have a top 10 single on the US Billboard Hot 100 in five different decades when the single reached number 9. In November 2019, it was reported that a Jackson biopic, produced by Bohemian Rhapsody (2018) producer Graham King, was in the works, with the screenplay written by John Logan.

Jackson and Safe chuck (right) in Honolulu, Hawaii in 1988In 2013, choreographer Wade Robson filed a lawsuit alleging that Jackson had sexually abused him for seven years, beginning when he was seven years old. In 2014, a case was filed by James Safe chuck, alleging sexual abuse over a four-year period from the age of ten.

Both had testified in Jackson's defense during the 1993 allegations; Robson did so again in 2005. In 2015, Robson's case against Jackson's estate was dismissed on the grounds of being filed too late.

Safe chuck's claim was also time barred. In 2017, it was ruled that Jackson's corporations could not be held accountable for his alleged past actions.

The rulings were appealed, and on October 20, 2021, Safe chuck's lawsuit against Jackson's corporations was again dismissed, with the presiding judge ruling that there was no evidence that Safe chuck had a relationship with Jackson's companies. Robson and Safe chuck described the allegations in graphic detail in the documentary Leaving Neverland, released in March 2019.

Radio stations in New Zealand, Canada, the UK and the Netherlands removed Jackson's music from their playlists. Jackson's family condemned the film as a “public lynching”, and the Jackson estate released a statement calling the film a “tabloid character assassination endured in life, and now in death”.

Close associates of Jackson, such as Corey Feldman, Aaron Carter, Brett Barnes, and Macaulay Colin, said that Jackson had not molested them. Rebuttal documentaries, such as Neverland Firsthand: Investigating the Michael Jackson Documentary and Michael Jackson: Chase the Truth, presented information countering the claims.

Jackson's album sales increased following the documentary. Billboard senior editor Gail Mitchell said she and a colleague interviewed about thirty music executives who believed Jackson's legacy could withstand the controversy.

In late 2019, some New Zealand and Canadian radio stations re-added Jackson's music to their playlists, citing “positive listener survey results”. On February 21, 2019, the Jackson estate sued HBO for breaching a non-disparagement clause from a 1992 contract.

The suit sought to compel HBO to participate in a non-confidential arbitration that could result in $100million or more in damages rewarded to the estate. HBO said they did not breach a contract and filed an anti- SLAP motion against the estate.

On September 20, Judge George H. Wu denied HBO's motion to dismiss the case, allowing the Jackson estate to arbitrate. Jackson has been referred to as the King of Pop because he transformed the art of music videos and paved the way for modern pop music.

For much of Jackson's career, he had an unparalleled worldwide influence over the younger generation. His influence extended beyond the music industry; he impacted dance, led fashion trends, and raised awareness for global affairs.

Jackson's music and videos fostered racial diversity in MTV's roster and steered its focus from rock to pop music and R&B, shaping the channel into a form that proved enduring. In songs such as Man in the Mirror “, Black or White “, Heal the World, Earth Song and They Don't Care About Us “, Jackson's music emphasized racial integration and environmentalism and protested injustice.

He is recognized as the Most Successful Entertainer of All Time by Guinness World Records. He is considered one of the most significant cultural icons of the 20th century, and his contributions to music, dance, and fashion, along with his publicized personal life, made him a global figure in popular culture for over four decades.

Steve Huey of Music called him “an unstoppable juggernaut, possessed of all the skills to dominate the charts seemingly at will: an instantly identifiable voice, eye-popping dance moves, stunning musical versatility and loads of sheer star power”. BET said Jackson was “quite simply the greatest entertainer of all time” whose “sound, style, movement and legacy continues to inspire artists of all genres”.

In 1984, Time pop critic Jay Cocks wrote that “Jackson is the biggest thing since the Beatles. He is the hottest single phenomenon since Elvis Presley.

In 2003, Daily Telegraph writer Tom They described Jackson as “extremely important” and a “genius”. In 2007, Jackson said: “Music has been my outlet, my gift to all the lovers in this world.

At Jackson's memorial service on July 7, 2009, Motown founder Berry Gordy called Jackson “the greatest entertainer that ever lived”. In a June 28, 2009, Baltimore Sun article, Jill Rose wrote that Jackson's legacy influenced fields including sound, dance, fashion, music videos and celebrity.

Pop critic Robert Christian wrote that Jackson's work from the 1970s to the early 1990s showed “immense originality, adaptability, and ambition” with “genius beats, hooks, arrangements, and vocals (though not lyrics)”, music that “will stand forever as a reproach to the puritanical notion that pop music is slick or shallow and that's the end of it”. During the 1990s, as Jackson lost control of his “troubling life”, his music suffered and began to shape “an arc not merely of promise fulfilled and outlived, but of something approaching tragedy: a phenomenally ebullient child star tops himself like none before, only to transmute audibly into a lost weirdo”.

In the 2000s, Christian wrote: “Jackson's obsession with fame, his grotesque life magnified by his grotesque wealth, are such an offense to rock aesthetes that the fact that he's a great musician is now often forgotten”. Jackson was influenced by musicians including James Brown, Little Richard, Jackie Wilson, Diana Ross, Fred Astaire, Sammy Davis Jr., Gene Kelly, and David Roughing.

Little Richard had a substantial influence on Jackson, but Brown was his greatest inspiration; he later said that as a small child, his mother would waken him whenever Brown appeared on television. Jackson's vocal technique was influenced by Diana Ross; his use of the Pooh interjection from a young age was something Ross had used on many of her songs with the Supreme.

, said that Jackson watched the musical West Side Story almost every week, and it was his favorite film; he paid tribute to it in “Beat It” and the “Bad” video. Jackson sang from childhood, and over time his voice and vocal style changed.

Between 1971 and 1975, his voice descended from boy soprano to high tenor. With the arrival of Off the Wall in the late 1970s, Jackson's abilities as a vocalist were well regarded; Rolling Stone compared his vocals to the “breathless, dreamy stutter” of Stevie Wonder, and wrote that “Jackson's feathery-timbred tenor is extraordinarily beautiful.

It slides smoothly into a startling falsetto that's used very daringly.” By the time of 1982's Thriller, Rolling Stone wrote that Jackson was singing in a “fully adult voice” that was “tinged by sadness”.

The turn of the 1990s saw the release of the introspective album Dangerous. The New York Times noted that on some tracks, “he gulps for breath, his voice quivers with anxiety or drops to a desperate whisper, hissing through clenched teeth” and he had a “wretched tone”.

When singing of brotherhood or self-esteem the musician would return to “smooth” vocals. Of Invincible, Rolling Stone wrote that, at 43, Jackson still performed “exquisitely voiced rhythm tracks and vibrating vocal harmonies”.

Joseph Vogel notes Jackson's ability to use non-verbal sounds to express emotion. Neil McCormick wrote that Jackson's unorthodox singing style “was original and utterly distinctive”.

He is credited for playing guitar, keyboard and drums, but was not proficient in them. When composing, he recorded ideas by beatboxing and imitating instruments vocally.

Engineer Robert Hoffman recalled Jackson dictating a guitar chord note by note and singing string arrangements part by part into a cassette recorder. Jackson danced from a young age as part of the Jackson 5, and incorporated dance extensively in his performances and music videos.

According to San joy Roy of the Guardian, Jackson would “flick and retract his limbs like switchblades, or snap out of a tornado spin into a perfectly poised toe-stand”. The moonwalk, taught to him by Jeffrey Daniel, was his signature dance and one of the most famous dance techniques of the 20th century.

His other moves included the robot, crotch grab, and the “anti-gravity” lean of the “Smooth Criminal” video. Jackson during his Bad tour in Vienna, June 1988Jackson explored genres including pop, soul, rhythm and blues, funk, rock, disco, post-disco, dance-pop and new jack swing.

Steve Huey of Music wrote that Thriller refined the strengths of Off the Wall ; the dance and rock tracks were more aggressive, while the pop tunes and ballads were softer and more soulful. Its tracks included the ballads “The Lady in My Life”, Human Nature “, and The Girl Is Mine “, the funk pieces “Billie Jean” and “Want to Be Starting' Something'”, and the disco set Baby Be Mine and P.Y.T.

With Thriller, Christopher Connelly of Rolling Stone commented that Jackson developed his long association with the subliminal theme of paranoia and darker imagery. Music's Stephen Thomas Brewing noted this on the songs “Billie Jean” and “Want to Be Starting' Something'”.

In “Billie Jean”, Jackson depicts an obsessive fan who alleges he has fathered her child, and in “Want to Be Starting' Something'” he argues against gossip and the media. “Beat It” decried gang violence in a homage to West Side Story, and was Jackson's first successful rock cross-over piece, according to Huey.

He also observed that the title track Thriller began Jackson's interest with the theme of the supernatural, a topic he revisited in subsequent years. In 1985, Jackson co-wrote the charity anthem “We Are the World”; humanitarian themes later became a recurring theme in his lyrics and public persona.

Jackson's song “Thriller”, released as a single in 1984; Nelson George wrote that it uses cinematic sound effects, horror film motifs, and vocal trickery to convey a sense of danger. A single from the album Bad, released 1988, “Smooth Criminal” features digital drum sounds, keyboard bass, and other percussion elements; George said it gave the impression of a pulsing heart.

The lead single from Dangerous, “Black or White” is a danceable rock song with hard rock elements. In Bad, Jackson's concept of the predatory lover is seen on the rock song “Dirty Diana”.

The lead single “I Just Can't Stop Loving You” is a traditional love ballad, and “Man in the Mirror” is a ballad of confession and resolution. “ Smooth Criminal is an evocation of bloody assault, rape and likely murder.

Music's Stephen Thomas Brewing states that Dangerous presents Jackson as a paradoxical person. The first half of the record is dedicated to new jack swing, including songs like “Jam” and “Remember the Time”.

It was the first Jackson album in which social ills became a primary theme; “Why You Wanna Trip on Me”, for example, protests world hunger, AIDS, homelessness and drugs. Dangerous contains sexually charged songs such as In the Closet “.

The title track continues the theme of the predatory lover and compulsive desire. The second half includes introspective, pop-gospel anthems such as Will You Be There “, “Heal the World” and “Keep the Faith”.

In the ballad Gone Too Soon “, Jackson gives tribute to Ryan White and the plight of those with AIDS. History creates an atmosphere of paranoia.

In the new jack swing-funk rock tracks “Scream” and “Tabloid Junkie”, and the R&B ballad You Are Not Alone “, Jackson retaliates against the injustice and isolation he feels, and directs his anger at the media. In the introspective ballad Stranger in Moscow “, Jackson laments his “fall from grace”; “Earth Song”, “Childhood”, “Little Susie” and “Smile” are operatic pop songs.

“, Jackson launched a verbal attack against the lawyer Tom Sheldon, who had prosecuted him in both child sexual abuse cases. He describes Sheldon as an antisocial white supremacist who wanted to “get my ass, dead or alive”.

It includes urban soul tracks such as Cry and “The Lost Children”, ballads such as Speechless “, “Break of Dawn”, and “Butterflies” and mixes hip hop, pop, and R&B in “2000 Watts”, “Heartbreaker” and “Invincible”. Jackson released Thriller “, a 14-minute music video directed by John Lands, in 1983.

The zombie -themed video “defined music videos and broke racial barriers” on MTV, which had launched two years earlier. Before Thriller, Jackson struggled to receive coverage on MTV, allegedly because he was African American.

Pressure from CBS Records persuaded MTV to start showing “Billie Jean” and later “Beat It”, which led to a lengthy partnership with Jackson, and helped other black music artists gain recognition. The popularity of his videos on MTV helped the relatively new channel's viewing figures, and MTV's focus shifted toward pop and R&B.

His performance on Motown 25: Yesterday, Today, Forever changed the scope of live stage shows, making it acceptable for artists to lip-sync to music video on stage. The choreography in Thriller has been copied in Indian films and prisons in the Philippines.

When asked by Winfrey in the 1993 interview about why he grabbed his crotch, he said it was spontaneously compelled by the music. Time magazine described the “Bad” video as “infamous”.

For the “Smooth Criminal” video, Jackson experimented with leaning forward at a 45-degree angle, beyond the performer's center of gravity. To accomplish this live, Jackson and designers developed a special shoe to lock the performer's feet to the stage, allowing them to lean forward.

The video for “Leave Me Alone” was not officially released in the US, but in 1989 was nominated for three Billboard Music Video Awards and won a Golden Lion Award for its special effects. It won a Grammy for Best Music Video, Short Form.

The “Black or White” video simultaneously premiered on November 14, 1991, in 27 countries with an estimated audience of 500million people, the largest audience ever for a music video at the time. Along with Jackson, it featured Macaulay Colin, Peggy Lipton, and George Went.

It helped introduce morphing to music videos. It was controversial for scenes in which Jackson rubs his crotch, vandalizes cars, and throws a garbage can through a storefront.

He apologized and removed the final scene of the video. “In the Closet” featured Naomi Campbell in a courtship dance with Jackson.

“Remember the Time” was set in Ancient Egypt, and featured Eddie Murphy, Man, and Magic Johnson. The video for “Scream”, directed by Mark Roman and production designer Tom Modern, gained a record 11 MTV Video Music Award Nominations, and won “Best Dance Video”, “Best Choreography”, and “Best Art Direction”.

The song and its video are Jackson's response to being accused of child molestation in 1993. A year later, it won a Grammy for Best Music Video, Short Form.

It has been reported as the most expensive music video ever made, at $7million; Roman has contradicted this. In December 2009, the Library of Congress selected “Thriller” as the only music video to be preserved in the National Film Registry, as a work of “enduring importance to American culture”.

Huey wrote that Jackson transformed the music video into an art form and a promotional tool through complex story lines, dance routines, special effects and famous cameos, while breaking down racial barriers. Jackson won hundreds of awards, more than any other popular music recording artist.

His awards include 39 Guinness World Records, including the Most Successful Entertainer of All Time, 13 Grammy Awards, as well as the Grammy Legend Award and the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award, and a record 26 American Music Awards, including the “Artist of the Century” and “Artist of the 1980s”. He also was honored with the World Music Awards Best-Selling Pop Male Artist of the Millennium and the Bambi Pop Artist of the Millennium Award.

He was inducted to the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and Vocal Group Hall of Fame as a member of The Jackson 5 in 1997 and 1999, respectively, and again as a solo artist in 2001. In 2002, he was added to the Songwriters Hall of Fame.

In 2010, Jackson was the first recording artist to be inducted into the Dance Hall of Fame, and in 2014 he was posthumously inducted into the Rhythm and Blues Music Hall of Fame. Jackson received an Honorary Doctorate of Humane Letters from Fisk University in 1988.

In 1992, he was invested as a titular king of San, a traditional kingdom located in the south-east of the Ivory Coast. In July 2009, the Lunar Republic Society named a crater on the Moon after Jackson.

In December, the American Film Institute recognized Jackson's death as a “moment of significance”. In 2010, two university librarians found that there were references to Jackson in academic writing on music, popular culture, chemistry and other topics.

On December 19, 2014, the British Council of Cultural Relations deemed Jackson's life one of the 80 most important cultural moments of the 20th century. World Vitiligo Day has been celebrated on June 25, the anniversary of Jackson's death, to raise awareness of the auto-immune disorder that Jackson suffered from.

On December 29, 2009, the American Film Institute recognized Jackson's death as a “moment of significance”. In 1989, Jackson's annual earnings from album sales, endorsements, and concerts were estimated at $125million.

Forbes placed Jackson's annual income at $35million in 1996 and $20million in 1997. Estimates of Jackson's net worth during his life range from negative $285million to positive $350million for 2002, 2003 and 2007.

Forbes reported in August 2018 that Jackson's total career pretax earnings in life and death were $4.2billion. Sales of his recordings through Sony's music unit earned him an estimated $300million in royalties.

He may have earned another $400million from concerts, music publishing (including his share of the Beatles catalog), endorsements, merchandising and music videos. In 2013, the executors of Jackson's estate filed a petition in the United States Tax Court as a result of a dispute with the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) over US federal estate taxes.

In February 2014, the IRS reported that Jackson's estate owed $702million; $505million in taxes, and $197million in penalties. A trial was held from February 6 to 24, 2017, and a decision was still pending as of 2020.

In 2016, Forbes estimated annual gross earnings by the Jackson Estate at $825million, the largest ever recorded for a celebrity, mostly due to the sale of the Sony/ATV catalog. It was the eighth year since his death that Jackson's annual earnings were reported to be over $100million, thus bringing Jackson's postmortem total to $2.4billion.

In 2020, Forbes recognized Jackson as the top-earning dead celebrity each year since his death except 2012. ^ The Wall Street Journal and other news sites report that the 750 million units sold by Michael Jackson is an inflated figure, initially claimed in 2006 by Raymond Bain, Jackson's publicist at that time, without any evidence and probably in an effort to boost album sales.

Since 2006, several sources such as RIAA, Rolling Stone, and Time have claimed that Michael Jackson has sold 750 million units (or even 1 billion); Adrian Strain, a representative from the International Federation of the Phonographic Industry (IFP) has disputed this figure. ^ I Just Can't Stop Loving You “, Bad “, The Way You Make Me Feel “, Man in the Mirror “, and Dirty Diana “.

^ In 2018, its US sales record was overtaken by the Eagles album The Greatest Hits 1971–75, with 38× platinum. “Statement from Raymond Bain to all fans and fan clubs”.

“Michael Jackson's 'Thriller' Is First Album to Sell 30 Million Copies”. ^ County of Los Angeles Department of Health Services (2009).

“A Star Idolized and Haunted, Michael Jackson Dies at 50”. ^ “Michael Jackson: 10 Achievements That Made Him The King of Pop”.

^ Katherine Jackson: Michael's strict upbringing not abuse (video). “Joe Jackson denies abusing Michael” (Press release).

“Bobby Taylor, Motown Singer Who Discovered Jackson 5, Dead at 83”. “Synesthesia, “Crossover,” and Blacks in Popular Music”.

Michael Jackson: Rewind: The Life and Legacy of Pop Music's King. “48 Years Ago Today, 'I Want You Back' Kicked It All Off for the Jackson 5”.

Michael Jackson's estate owes Quincy Jones $9.4m in royalties, jury decides”. “10 Things We Learned From Spike Lee's Michael Jackson Doc”.

“Ask Billboard: Remembering the Time When Michael Jackson Kept Hitting the Hot 100's Top 10, From 'Thriller' to 'Dangerous “. ^ “Donna Summer and Michael Jackson sweep Annual American Music Awards”.

National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences. “Michael Jackson and Freddie Mercury: Three Duets Coming Out This Fall”.

^ “The real Freddie Mercury: why the Queen biopic only tells part of the story”. “Hear Michael Jackson and Freddie Mercury's Long-Lost Duet”.

“Producer of new Queen album featuring Freddie Mercury and Michael Jackson vocals is revealed”. ^ “Cash register's ring sweet music to record industry”.

^ a b “Michael Jackson sweeps American Music Awards”. ^ “Winners Database: Search Results for “Michael Jackson ".

Coverage of the sale of ATV Music at 2:36 minutes in. “To understand Michael Jackson and his skin, you have to go beyond race”.

“The Aftermath of Michael Jackson and Oprah: What About His Face?” “Doctor Says Michael Jackson Has a Skin Disease”.

“Search of Michael Jackson's Home Revealed Skin-Whitening Creams”. “The Michael Jackson Interview: Oprah Reflects”.

^ “Arnold Klein, Dermatologist Who Smoothed Stars' Wrinkles, Dies at 70”. ^ “Michael Jackson was addicted to plastic surgery, his mother says”.

There was strong opposition to his “Thriller” video on the part of some Witnesses. Perhaps the controversy figured into his decision to leave.

Witnesses do not discuss spiritual matters with a person who has disassociated himself from the Witnesses, including family members. But I want to stress that, contrary to published reports, I was not required to “shun” my son.

“Michael Jackson is still “Bad,” 25 years after album”. “When Michael Jackson (almost) told all: the story of his bizarre autobiography Moonwalk”.

“Michael Jackson's Memoir, 'Moonwalk': Read Excerpts Here!” ^ “Entertainment Notes: Moon walker Tops Thriller”.

highly placed source at MTV says the network was obligated to refer to Jackson on air as the King of Pop in order to be allowed to show Black or White.” An MTV spokeswoman denies that, but the phrase was part of MTV's ads for the video and was repeatedly used by its Vs.

A source at Fox confirms that Jackson's people did request that Bart use the phrase “King of Pop” in the video and that the phrase also be used in the network's press releases; 'King of Pop' also crops up in Fox's print ads for the video and in press releases by Jackson's publicists, Solvers /Ruskin/Friedman. ^ “Remarks on the Upcoming Summit With President Mikhail Gorbachev of the Soviet Union”.

“Michael Jackson's Life & Legacy: The Eccentric King of Pop (1986–1999)”. ^ Gray, Chris; Shah, Speed (October 3, 2002).

^ “Jackson Shows Up to Gather Awards, Despite Ankle Injury”. “Michael Jackson Concert from Bucharest on HBO Saturday”.

“Facing the music and the masses at the presidential gala”. ^ Stuart, Tessa; Spans, Brittany; Grow, Kory (January 19, 2017).

“From Dylan to Beyoncé: Most Legendary Inauguration Performances”. ^ a b “Michael Jackson: Crowned in Africa, Pop Music King Tells Real Story Of Controversial Trip”.

Untouchable: The Strange Life & Tragic Death of Michael Jackson. “Jackson's Books About Boys Are Allowed as Evidence in Trial”.

Unmasked: The Final Years of Michael Jackson. Dead Celebrities, Living Icons: Tragedy and Fame in the Age of the Multimedia Superstar.

^ a b “ADL Welcomes Michael Jackson's Decision To Remove Anti-Semitic Lyrics From Song”. ^ “Company News; Michael Jackson sells rights to Beatles songs to Sony”.

^ a b c Leeds, Jeff; Working, Andrew Ross (April 13, 2006). “The best-selling singles of all time on the Official UK Chart”.

^ “Ricky Martin, Mariah Carey, Michael Jackson, Others To Join Pavarotti For Benefit”. ^ “Slash, Scorpions, Others Scheduled For “Michael Jackson & Friends ".

“Big Deal; An Old Chagall Haunt, Repainted”. “Lauryn Hill, Backstreet Boys, DMX Honored With American Music Awards”.

^ “Keys, Destiny's Child, McGraw wins at American Music Awards”. “Awards recognize popular success / Keys, Destiny's win as expected”.

“Michael Jackson Calls Baby-Dangling Incident A 'Terrible Mistake “. “Jackson sued by promoter for attempting world tour without him”.

“Officials Revisit Tax Break for Jackson's Neverland as Cattle Ranch”. “HBO's The Apollo: 'The story of how black America lifted itself through music “.

^ a b “Michael Jackson Brands Recording Industry As Racist”. I give him the bed, 'cause he has a brother named Star.

“Michael Jackson Pleads Not Guilty to Molestation Charges”. ^ “Michael Jackson: The fantastic possessions revealed”.

^ “Dr. Patrick Treaty's New Book : “Behind The Mask” (the Irishman who became Michael Jackson's doctor)”. “James Brown Saluted By Michael Jackson at Public Funeral Service”.

^ “Michael Jackson buys rights to Eminem tunes and more”. “Interview with Redone, producer and songwriter for Lady Gaga, Michael Jackson, Akin, Kat Delaney and Darin” (Interview).

While some have made deliberate attempts to hurt me, I take it in stride because I have a loving family, a strong faith and wonderful friends and fans who have, and continue, to support me. ^ “Michael Jackson Greets Troops in Japan”.

^ “Choose The Tracks On Michael Jackson's 50th Birthday Album!” ^ “Neverland Ranch Note Sold to Colony Capital” (Press release).

^ “Los Angeles Fire Department recording of the emergency phone call made from Michael Jackson's home”. ^ “Michael Jackson's life cut shockingly short”.

“Fans mourn artist for whom it didn't matter if you were black or white”. “Michael Jackson, King of Pop, dies of cardiac arrest in Los Angeles”.

“Jackson dies, almost takes Internet with him” (Press release). “Outpouring over Michael Jackson unlike anything since Princess Di”.

^ “Over 1.6M apply for Jackson memorial tickets” (Press release). ^ “Michael Jackson memorial draws crowds online” (Press release).

“Michael Jackson Memorial Earns 31 Million Viewers & More TV News”. “Michael Jackson memorial service: the biggest celebrity send-off of all time”.

^ “Top Moments: Michael Jackson Memorial”. ^ “Rev Lucius Smith on conducting the memorial service for Michael Jackson”.

“One year later: Fans gather to pay tribute to Michael Jackson”. “A year after Michael Jackson's death, fan base remains committed to keeping memory alive”.

“LA coroner to treat Michael Jackson's death as a homicide”. ^ “Michael Jackson's doctor denies manslaughter charge”.

^ “Conrad Murray guilty of Michael Jackson manslaughter”. ^ Leonard, Jack; Blank stein, Andrew; Winston, Richard (November 8, 2011).

^ “Michael Jackson's doctor released from jail”. ^ Cocoa, Christina; Lloyd, Jonathan; Takamatsu, Gordon (October 28, 2013).

“Taylor Swift, Michael Jackson dominate American Music Awards nominations ”. ^ “2009 American Music Awards: Scorecard”.

“Taylor Swift Edges Susan Boyle For 2009's Top-Selling Album”. ^ “Jackson sells 35 million albums since death”.

“Michael Jackson First Artist to Sell Over 1 Million Downloads in a Single Week”. “Sony Places Big Bet on a Fallen 'King “.

“Michael Jackson Estate, Sony Strike Massive $250 Million Deal to Release King of Pop's Music”. “Michael Jackson Estate, Sony Music Extend Partnership for Recordings”.

“Sony Completes Acquisition of Michael Jackson Estate's Share of EMI Music Publishing”. “Michael Jackson, Coldplay Hit Hot 100's Top 10; John Legend Still No.

“Michael Jackson's 'Thriller' is no longer the best-selling album of all time in the US”. “Judge Approves Michael Jackson Film”.

^ “Exclusive: Will.i.am Explains His 'Disgust' for New Michael Jackson Album”. ^ “Michael Jackson Fans Will Moonwalk In Motion-Sensing Game”.

“People: Cirque du Soleil mounting Michael Jackson tour”. ' Michael Jackson ONE' in Las Vegas: Cirque du Soleil reminds its way”.

“Michael Jackson's New Vegas Show 'One' Will Double The Fun”. “Michael Jackson Estate Cancels Chicago Musical Run”.

“Michael Jackson musical to premiere in Chicago before Broadway”. “Michael Jackson estate launches PR blitz as documentary airs in UK”.

^ “Breaking: Michael Jackson Don't Stop 'Til You Get Enough Cancels Chicago Premiere, Opens Cold on Broadway Summer 2020”. ^ “Michael Jackson Fulham FC statue defended by Al Faced”.

^ “Michael Jackson statue moves to National Football Museum”. ^ “Michael Jackson statue: National Football Museum removes artwork”.

“Michael Jackson, Coldplay Hit Hot 100's Top 10; John Legend Still No. “Michael Jackson Biopic in the Works from 'Bohemian Rhapsody' Producer”.

“James Safe chuck Alleges Sexual Abuse By Michael Jackson, Sues Singer's Estate”. “Michael Jackson hit with new child sex abuse claims more than five years after his death”.

“APNewsBreak: Michael Jackson Sex Abuse Lawsuit Dismissed” (Press release). ^ “Michael Jackson sex abuse lawsuit dismissed”.

^ “Lawsuit of Michael Jackson sexual abuse accuser dismissed”. “Michael Jackson estate tries to block documentarian from filming 'Leaving Neverland' sequel: report”.

' Leaving Neverland' Director Dan Reed Fights Subpoenas as He Shoots Sequel to Channel 4/HBO's Michael Jackson Film”. ^ Roy, Eleanor Binge (March 6, 2019).

“Michael Jackson songs pulled from radio stations in New Zealand and Canada”. “First Dutch radio station boycotts Michael Jackson music”.

^ “Michael Jackson's Family Calls 'Leaving Neverland' Documentary a 'Public Lynching”. “Michael Jackson Estate Slams 'Leaving Neverland': 'Tabloid Character Assassination “.

^ “Corey Feldman Guards Michael Jackson After 'Leaving Neverland' Airs”. “Aaron Carter defends Michael Jackson after saying the star did one 'inappropriate' thing”.

^ “Leaving Neverland: who is Brett Barnes, Michael Jackson's 'other boy'?” “Jackson family responds to 'Leaving Neverland' in 30-minute YouTube documentary”.

“New documentary 'Chase the Truth' defending Michael Jackson is released”. “Michael Jackson albums climb the charts following Leaving Neverland broadcast”.

“Michael Jackson's popularity endures, even after new scandal”. “Michael Jackson songs back on New Zealand radio airwaves”.

“Michael Jackson Estate Sues HBO Over 'Leaving Neverland' Documentary”. ^ “MJ Estate v HBO Final Ruling on Arbitration | United States District Court | Government Information”.

^ “Michael Jackson's music had impact around the globe”. “Black and White: how Dangerous kicked off Michael Jackson's race paradox”.

^ “Why Michael Jackson's songs on climate change and racial inequality need to be youth anthems now”. ^ a b “Michael Jackson Named Most Successful Entertainer Of All Time”.

“Michael Jackson's Groundbreaking Career, By The Numbers”. “Michael Jackson's style influence lives on” (Press release).

“Michael Jackson's Style Legacy, From Military Jackets To One Glove”. “Michael Jackson's, Indelible Pop Legacy”.

“Commentary: Michael Jackson, the greatest star” (Press release). ^ “Gordy Brings Mourners to Their Feet With Jackson Tribute”.

“Michael Jackson hailed as greatest entertainer, the best dad” (Press release). “7 Ways Michael Jackson Changed The World”.

“Jackson shared bond with 'very dear friend Diana Ross “ (Press release). “David Winters remembers Michael Jackson”.

^ a b c Caliber, M. “A State-of-the-Art Pop Album: Thriller by Michael”. Not many artists could pull off such a variety of styles (funk, post-disco, rock, easy listening, ballads)... ^ Brewing, Stephen Thomas.

“Jackson's 'Dangerous' Departures; Stylistic Shifts Mar His First Album in 4 Years”. “Michael Jackson: History: Past, Present, Future, Book I”.

^ “Michael Jackson, “Billie Jean,” directed by Steve Barron, produced by Simon Fields & Paul Flattery”. “Music videos changing places”.

^ US Michael J. Jackson, Michael L. Bush, Dennis Tompkins: “Method and means for creating anti-gravity illusion”, filed June 29, 1992, issued October 26, 1993 5255452 ^ Anderson, Kyle (June 26, 2009). “Michael Jackson's Video Vanguard Award, In MJ's Top MTV Moments”.

^ “Michael Jackson Co-Directs Music Film, 'In the Closet “. “Michael Jackson Interview Raises Questions, Answers”.

“ Scream” Gets Named Most Expensive Video Ever; Director Mark Roman Disagrees”. “Pumpkins a Smash Hit with 7 Grammy Nominations”.

“Michael Jackson's Video Co-Stars: From Eddie Murphy to Marlon Brando”. ^ “NAACP Image Award Spotlight Black' Achievements”.

^ “Zorro, Nemo, Muppets & More: Wide Variety Tapped for 2009 Film Registry”. ' Thriller' Video Added to U.S. Film Registry”.

“Jackson was star the world could not ignore” (Press release). “Michael Jackson remembered 5 years later: How the Daily News covered the tragic story of icon's death”.

^ “Remarks at a White House Ceremony Marking Progress Made in the Campaign Against Drunk Driving”. Ronald Reagan Presidential Library and Museum.

“20 People Who Changed Black Music: Michael Jackson, the Child Star-Turned-Adult Enigma”. “Michael Jackson to add concerts after sellout”.

^ “Michael Jackson and Halle Berry Pick Up Bambi Awards in Berlin”. ^ “The Vocal Group Hall of Fame: Album Categories 1999 Inductee”.

“R&B Music Hall of Fame sets big weekend to induct sophomore class featuring Michael Jackson, Whitney Houston, Marvin Gaye, Norm N. Nice and more”. ^ “San kingdom mourns passing of a prince”.

“Librarians Prove Michael Jackson Was a Rock Star in Academic Literature”. ^ “80 Moments That Shaped the World” (PDF).

“Forensic accountant tells court Jackson is in financial straits”. “Michael Jackson at 60: The King of Pop by the Numbers”.

^ “United States Tax Court: Washington, DC 20217”. “Prince wrongful death case dismissed; estate case continues” (Press release).

^ Green burg, Zack O'Malley; Rebelled, Natalie (October 31, 2017). “The Real Reason Behind Michael Jackson's Earnings Drop”.

^ “Michael Jackson tops list of top-earning dead celebs at $60 MN, Elvis Presley retains 2nd spot”. TCI: Theater Crafts International.

Michael Jackson: The Ultimate Collection (booklet). “Want to Be Starting' Something': MJ in the Scholarly Literature: A Selected Bibliographic Guide” (PDF).

“E-Race-ing Color: Gender and Transnational Visual Economies of Beauty in India”. Circuits of Visibility: Gender and Transnational Media Cultures.

I Want My MTV: The Uncensored Story of the Music Video Revolution. Michael Jackson: The Magic, The Madness, The Whole Story, 1958–2009.

Man in the Music: The Creative Life and Work of Michael Jackson. “A Hoosier Thriller: Gary, Indiana's Michael Jackson”.

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8 www.placesforpeople.co.uk - https://www.placesforpeople.co.uk/homes-to-rent/
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10 rent.placesforpeople.co.uk - https://rent.placesforpeople.co.uk/
11 www.moneymakingstudent.co.uk - http://www.moneymakingstudent.co.uk/2009/07/05/20-places-to-buy-sell-and-rent-cheap-textbooks-online/