Even though Wayne began his film career in California, his memorabilia collection celebrating his life resides in Fort Worth, Texas. “He backed that film personally and professionally and ended a decade-long relationship with Republic Pictures with it.
Years active1926–1977Political party Republican Spouse(s) (m. 1933; div. 1945)Children7, including Michael, Patrick, and Ethan Website johnwayne.com Signature Marion Robert Morrison (May 26, 1907 – June 11, 1979), known professionally as John Wayne and nicknamed Duke, was an American actor and filmmaker who became a popular icon through his starring roles in Western films.
His career spanned from the silent era of the 1920s, through the Golden Age of Hollywood and eventually American New Wave, appearing in a total of 179 film and television productions. He was among the top box office draws for three decades, and appeared with many important Hollywood stars of his era.
Wayne was born Marion Robert Morrison on May 26, 1907, at 224 South Second Street in Winter set, Iowa. The local paper, Winter set Madison, reported on page 4 of the edition of May 30, 1907, that Wayne weighed 13 lbs.
Wayne claimed his middle name was soon changed from Robert to Michael when his parents decided to name their next son Robert, but extensive research has found no such legal change. Wayne's legal name remained Marion Robert Morrison his entire life.
Wayne's father, Clyde Leonard Morrison (1884–1937), was the son of American Civil War veteran Marion Mitchell Morrison (1845–1915). Wayne's mother, the former Mary “Molly” Alberta Brown (1885–1970), was from Lancaster County, Nebraska.
The Morrison's were originally from the Isle of Lewis in the Outer Hebrides, Scotland. Wayne's family moved to Palmdale, California, and then in 1916 to Glendale at 404 Isabel Street, where his father worked as a pharmacist.
He attended Glendale Union High School where he performed well in both sports and academics. He was also the President of the Latin Society and contributed to the school's newspaper sports column.
A local fireman at the station on his route to school in Glendale started calling him “Little Duke” because he never went anywhere without his huge Airedale Terrier, Duke. He preferred “Duke” to “Marion”, and the nickname stuck.
Wayne attended Wilson Middle School in Glendale. As a teen, he worked in an ice cream shop for a man who shod horses for Hollywood studios.
He played football for the 1924 league champion Glendale High School team. As a favor to coach Jones, who had given silent western film star Tom Mix tickets to USC games, director John Ford and Mix hired Wayne as a prop boy and extra.
Wayne later credited his walk, talk, and persona to his acquaintance with Wyatt Earp, who was good friends with Tom Mix. Wayne soon moved to bit parts, establishing a longtime friendship with the director who provided most of those roles, John Ford.
Early in this period he had a minor, credited role as a guard in the 1926 film Barely the Magnificent. Wayne also appeared with his USC teammates playing football in Brown of Harvard (1926), The Dropkick (1927), and Salute (1929) and Columbia's Maker of Men (filmed in 1930, released in 1931).
While working for Fox Film Corporation in bit roles, Wayne was given on-screen credit as “Duke Morrison” only once, in Words and Music (1929). Director Raoul Walsh saw him moving studio furniture while working as a prop boy and cast him in his first starring role in The Big Trail (1930).
For his screen name, Walsh suggested “Anthony Wayne “, after Revolutionary War general “Mad” Anthony Wayne. Fox Studios chief Winfield Sheehan rejected it as sounding “too Italian”.
The Big Trail was to be the first big-budget outdoor spectacle of the sound era, made at a then-staggering cost of over $2 million, using hundreds of extras and wide vistas of the American southwest, still largely unpopulated at the time. To take advantage of the breathtaking scenery, it was filmed in two versions, a standard 35 mm version and another in the new 70 mm Grandeur film process, using an innovative camera and lenses.
However, only a handful of theaters is equipped to show the film in its widescreen process, and the effort was largely wasted. The film was considered a huge box office flop at the time, but came to be highly regarded by modern critics.
After the commercial failure of The Big Trail, Wayne was relegated to small roles in A-pictures, including Columbia's The Deceiver (1931), in which he played a corpse. He appeared in the serial The Three Musketeers (1933), an updated version of the Alexandre Dumas novel in which the protagonists were soldiers in the French Foreign Legion in then-contemporary North Africa.
He played the lead, with his name over the title, in much low-budget Poverty Row Westerns, mostly at Monogram Pictures and serials for Mascot Pictures Corporation. By Wayne's own estimation, he appeared in about 80 of these horse operas from 1930 to 1939.
In Riders of Destiny (1933), he became one of the first singing cowboys of film, albeit via dubbing. Wayne also appeared in some Three Mesquites Westerns, whose title was a play on the Dumas classic.
He was mentored by stuntmen in riding and other Western skills. Stuntman Yakima Canute and Wayne developed and perfected stunts and onscreen fisticuffs techniques which are still in use.
Wayne's breakthrough role came with John Ford's Stagecoach (1939). Because of Wayne's B-movie status and track record in low-budget Westerns throughout the 1930s, Ford had difficulty getting financing for what was to be an A-budget film.
Cast member Louise Platt credited Ford as saying at the time that Wayne would become the biggest star ever because of his appeal as the archetypal “every man”. America's entry into World War II resulted in a deluge of support for the war effort from all sectors of society, and Hollywood was no exception.
Herbert J. Yates, President of Republic, threatened Wayne with a lawsuit if he walked away from his contract, and Republic Pictures intervened in the Selective Service process, requesting Wayne's further deferment. U.S. National Archives records indicate that Wayne, in fact, did make an application to serve in the Office of Strategic Services (OSS), precursor to the modern CIA, and had been accepted within the U.S. Army's allotted billet to the OSS.
William J. Donovan, OSS Commander, wrote Wayne a letter informing him of his acceptance into the Field Photographic Unit, but the letter went to his estranged wife Josephine's home. Wayne toured U.S. bases and hospitals in the South Pacific for three months in 1943 and 1944. With the USO.
During this trip, he carried out a request from Donovan to assess whether General Douglas MacArthur, commander of the South West Pacific Area, or his staff were hindering the work of the OSS. By many accounts, his failure to serve in the military later became the most painful part of his life.
His widow later suggested that his patriotism in later decades sprang from guilt, writing: “He would become a 'super patriot' for the rest of his life trying to atone for staying home.” Like most Hollywood stars of his era, Wayne appeared as a guest on radio programs, such as: The Edda Hopper Show and The Louella Parsons Show.
He made a number of appearances in dramatic roles, mainly recreations for radio of his own film roles, on programs like Screen Directors Playhouse and Lux Radio Theater. For six months in 1942, Wayne starred in his own radio adventure series, Three Sheets to the Wind, produced by film director Day Garrett.
In the series, an international spy/detective show, Wayne played Dan O'Brien, a detective who used alcoholism as a mask for his investigatory endeavors. The show was intended by Garrett to be a pilot of sorts for a film version, though the motion picture never came to fruition.
Wayne, not Don levy, played the role throughout the series run on NBC. Director Robert Rossen offered the starring role in All the King's Men (1949) to Wayne.
Wayne refused, believing the script to be un-American in many ways. Broderick Crawford, who was eventually cast in the role, won the 1949 Oscar for best male actor, ironically beating out Wayne, who had been nominated for Sands of Two Jim (1949).
He lost the leading role of Jimmy Ringo in The Gunfighter (1950) to Gregory Peck due to his refusal to work for Columbia Pictures because its chief, Harry Cohn, had mistreated him years before when he was a young contract player. Cohn had bought the project for Wayne, but Wayne's grudge was too deep, and Cohn sold the script to Twentieth Century Fox, which cast Peck in the role Wayne badly wanted but for which he refused to bend.
During the filming of The Green Berets, the Dear or Montana people of Vietnam's Central Highlands, fierce fighters against communism, bestowed on Wayne a brass bracelet that he wore in the film and all subsequent films. Wayne finally won a Best Actor Oscar for True Grit (1969), two decades after his only other nomination.
On April 26, 1970, CBS released the television special Raquel! It starred Raquel Welch, and other guests included Tom Jones, and Bob Hope.
On the day of the premiere, the show received a 51% share on the National ARB Ratings and an impressive Overnight New York Nielsen Rating of 58% share. Wayne took on the role of the eponymous detective in the crime drama MCQ (1974).
The Shooting (1976) contains numerous plot similarities to The Gunfighter of nearly thirty years before, a role which Wayne had wanted but turned down. Batman, the production company cofounded by Wayne, was named after the fictional shipping company Batman in Wake of the Red Witch (1948), a film based on the novel by Garland Roar.
(A spelling error by Wayne's secretary was allowed to stand, accounting for the variation.) Its best-known non- Wayne productions were Seven Men From Now (1956), which started the classic collaboration between director Bud Botcher and star Randolph Scott, and Gun the Man Down (1956) with contract player James Harness as an outlaw.
In the Motion Picture Herald Top Ten Money-Making Western Stars poll, Wayne was listed in 1936 and 1939. He appeared in the similar Box Office poll in 1939 and 1940.
While these two polls are really an indication only of the popularity of series stars, Wayne also appeared in the Top Ten moneymakers Poll of all films from 1949 to 1957 and 1958 to 1974, taking first place in 1950, 1951, 1954, and 1971. With a total of 25 years on the list, Wayne has more appearances than any other star, surpassing Clint Eastwood (21) who is in second place.
Reviewing The Cowboys (1972), Vincent Candy of The New York Times, who did not particularly care for the film, wrote: Wayne is, of course, marvelously indestructible, and he has become an almost perfect father figure”. Due to his status as the highest-profile Republican star in Hollywood, wealthy Texas Republican Party backers asked Wayne to run for national office in 1968, like his friend and fellow actor Senator George Murphy.
He declined, joking that he did not believe the public would seriously consider an actor in the White House. Instead, he supported his friend Ronald Reagan's campaigns for Governor of California in 1966 and 1970.
He was asked to be the running mate for Democratic Alabama Governor George Wallace in 1968, but he immediately rejected the offer and actively campaigned for Richard Nixon; Wayne addressed the 1968 Republican National Convention on its opening day. Wayne openly differed with many conservatives over the issue of returning the Panama Canal, as he supported the Panama Canal Treaty in the mid-1970s; while Republican leaders such as Reagan, Jesse Helms and Storm Thurmond had wanted the U.S. to retain full control of the canal, Wayne and fellow conservative William F. Buckley believed that the Panamanians had the right to the canal and sided with President Jimmy Carter.
Wayne was a close friend of Panamanian leader Omar Corridos Herrera, and Wayne's first wife, Josephine, was a native of Panama. His support of the treaty brought him hate mail for the first time in his life.
Donnell Oxford during a visit at Chu Lie, South Vietnam in 1966In May 1971, Playboy magazine published an interview with Wayne, in which he expressed his support for the Vietnam War, and made headlines for his opinions about social issues and race relations in the United States: With a lot of blacks, there's quite a bit of resentment along with their dissent, and possibly rightfully so.
But we can't all of a sudden get down on our knees and turn everything over to the leadership of the blacks. I believe in white supremacy until the blacks are educated to a point of responsibility.
I don't feel we did wrong in taking this great country away from the Indians. There were great numbers of people who needed new land, and the Indians were selfishly trying to keep it for themselves.
I'd like to know why well-educated idiots keep apologizing for lazy and complaining people who think the world owes them a living. I'd like to know why they make excuses for cowards who spit in the faces of the police and then run behind the judicial sob sisters.
I can't understand these people who carry placards to save the life of some criminal, yet have no thought for the innocent victim. In March 2019, the Playboy interview resurfaced, which resulted in calls for John Wayne Airport to be renamed.
JohnWayne's son Ethan defended him, stating, “It would be an injustice to judge someone based on an interview that's being used out of context.” Similarly, in October 2019, USC student activists called for the removal of an exhibit dedicated to the actor, citing the interview.
His three wives included one of Spanish American descent, Josephine Alicia Seen, and two of Hispanic descent, Esperanza Bar, and Polar Pallet. Several of Wayne's children entered the film and television industry.
Granddaughter Jennifer Wayne is a member of the country music group Runaway June. His stormiest divorce was from Esperanza Bar, a Mexican former actress.
The night the film Angel and the Badman (1947) wrapped, there was the usual party for cast and crew, and Wayne came home very late. Esperanza was in a drunken rage by the time he arrived, and she attempted to shoot him as he walked through the front door.
Wayne had several high-profile affairs, including one with Merle Oberon that lasted from 1938 to 1947. After his separation from Polar, in 1973, Wayne became romantically involved and lived with his former secretary Pat Stacy (1941–1995) until his death in 1979.
She published a book about her life with him in 1983, titled Duke: A Love Story. Wayne's hair began to thin in the 1940s, and he had begun to wear a hairpiece by the end of the decade.
According to Sam O'Steen's memoir, Cut to the Chase, studio directors knew to shoot Wayne's scenes before noon, because by afternoon he “was a mean drunk”. He had been a chain smoker of cigarettes since young adulthood and was diagnosed with lung cancer in 1964.
He underwent successful surgery to remove his entire left lung and four ribs. Despite efforts by his business associates to prevent him from going public with his illness for fear that it would cost him work, Wayne announced he had cancer and called on the public to get preventive examinations.
Wayne has been credited with coining the term “The Big C” as a euphemism for cancer. He was a Freemason, a Master Mason in Marion McDaniel Lodge No.
He became a 32nd Degree Scottish Rite Mason and later joined the Al Malarkey Shrine Temple in Los Angeles. During the early 1960s, Wayne often traveled to Panama, and he purchased the island of Cabrillo off the coast.
In The Quiet Man, Wayne tells Michelsen “OGE” Flynn he is six-foot “four and a half” (194 cm), a height which is backed up by his widow Polar Wayne in her book John Wayne : My Life With the Duke. Although he enrolled in a cancer vaccine study in an attempt to ward off the disease, Wayne died of stomach cancer on June 11, 1979, at the UCLA Medical Center.
He was buried in the Pacific View Memorial Park Cemetery in Corona del Mar, Newport Beach. According to his son Patrick and his grandson Matthew Muñoz, who was a priest in the California Diocese of Orange, Wayne converted to Roman Catholicism shortly before his death.
Among the cast and crew who filmed The Conqueror (1956) on location near St. George, Utah, 91 cast/crew members developed some form of cancer at various times, including stars Wayne, Susan Hayward, Agnes Moore head, Pedro Armendáriz, and director Dick Powell. The film was shot in southwestern Utah, east of and generally downwind from the site of recent U.S. government nuclear weapons tests in southeastern Nevada.
Wayne's enduring status as an iconic American was formally recognized by the U.S. government in the form of the two highest civilian decorations. On his 72nd birthday on May 26, 1979, Wayne was awarded the Congressional Gold Medal.
It is important for you to know that I am a registered Democrat and, to my knowledge, share none of the political views espoused by Duke. However, whether he is ill-disposed or healthy, John Wayne is far beyond the normal political sharpshooting in this community.
Because of his courage, his dignity, his integrity, and because of his talents as an actor, his strength as a leader, his warmth as a human being throughout his illustrious career, he is entitled to a unique spot in our hearts and minds. In this industry, we often judge people, sometimes unfairly, by asking whether they have paid their dues.
John Wayne has paid his dues over and over, and I'm proud to consider him a friend and am very much in favor of my government recognizing in some important fashion the contribution that Mr. Wayne has made. Wayne's most enduring image is that of the displaced loner uncomfortable with the very civilization he is helping to establish and preserve... At his first appearance, we usually sense a very private person with some wound, loss or grievance from the past.
At his very best he is much closer to a tragic vision of life...projecting the kind of mystery associated with great acting. Various public locations are named in honor of Wayne, including the John Wayne Airport in Orange County, California, where 9 feet (2.7 m) bronze statue of him stands at the entrance; the John Wayne Marina for which Wayne bequeathed the land, near Sequin, Washington ; John Wayne Elementary School (P.S.
380) in Brooklyn, New York, which boasts 38 feet (12 m) mosaic mural commission by New York artist Knox Martin entitled John Wayne and the American Frontier”; and over 100 miles (160 km) named the John Wayne Pioneer Trail” in Washington's Iron Horse State Park. A larger than life-size bronze statue of Wayne atop a horse was erected at the corner of La Cinema Boulevard and Wilshire Boulevard in Beverly Hills, California, at the former offices of the Great Western Savings and Loan Corporation, for which Wayne had made a number of commercials.
In the city of Maricopa, Arizona, part of Arizona State Route 347 is named John Wayne Parkway, which runs through the center of town. In 2006, friends of Wayne and his former Arizona business partner, Louis Johnson, inaugurated the “Louie and the Duke Classics” events benefiting the John Wayne Cancer Foundation and the American Cancer Society.
The weekend-long event each fall in Casa Grande, Arizona, includes a golf tournament, an auction of John Wayne memorabilia, and a team roping competition. Several celebrations took place on May 26, 2007, the centennial of Wayne's birth.
A celebration at the John Wayne birthplace in Winter set, Iowa, included chuck-wagon suppers, concerts by Michael Martin Murphy and Riders in the Sky, a Wild West Revue in the style of Buffalo Bill's Wild West show, and a Cowboy Symposium with Wayne's costars, producers, and costumers. Wayne's films ran repetitively at the local theater.
Ground was broken for the New John Wayne Birthplace Museum and Learning Center at a ceremony consisting of over 30 of Wayne's family members, including Melinda Wayne Muñoz, Aisha, Ethan, and Marisa Wayne. Wayne rose beyond the typical recognition for a famous actor to that of an enduring icon who symbolized and communicated American values and ideals.
Using the power of communication through silent films and radio, Wayne was instrumental in creating a national culture from disparaged areas of the US, and made the creation of a national hero possible. Wayne embodied the icon of strong American masculinity and rugged individualism in both his films and his life.
At a party in 1957, Wayne confronted actor Kirk Douglas about the latter's decision to play the role of Vincent van Gogh in the film Lust for Life, saying: “Christ, Kirk, how can you play a part like that? However, actor Marlon Brando was notably critical of Wayne's public persona and of the cultural insensitivity of Wayne's characters, arguing on The Dick Caveat Show that, “We like to see ourselves as perhaps John Wayne sees us.
That we are a country that stands for freedom, for rightness, for justice,” before adding that “it just simply doesn't apply.” Wayne's rise to being the quintessential movie war hero began to take shape four years after World War II, when Sands of Two Jim (1949) was released.
His footprints at Grammar's Chinese theater in Hollywood were laid in concrete that contained sand from Two Jim. His status grew so large and legendary that when Japanese Emperor Hirohito visited the United States in 1975, he asked to meet John Wayne, the symbolic representation of his country's former enemy.
Likewise when Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev visited the United States in 1959, he made two requests: to visit Disneyland and meet Wayne. The John Wayne Cancer Foundation was founded in 1985 in honor of John Wayne, after his family granted the use of his name (and limited funding) for the continued fight against cancer.
The foundation's mission is to “bring courage, strength, and grit to the fight against cancer”. The foundation provides funds for innovative programs that improve cancer patient care, including research, education, awareness, and support.
Newport Beach, California -based John Wayne Enterprises, a business operated by Wayne's heirs, sells products, including Kentucky straight bourbon, bearing the “Duke” brand and using Wayne's picture. When the company tried to trademark the image appearing on one of the bottles, Duke University in Durham, North Carolina, filed a notice of opposition.
The company's complaint filed in federal court said the university did “not own the word 'Duke' in all contexts for all purposes.” The university's official position was not to object provided Wayne's image appeared with the name.
On September 30, 2014, the Orange County, California federal judge David Carter dismissed the company's suit, deciding the plaintiffs had chosen the wrong jurisdiction. Between 1926 and 1977, Wayne appeared in over 170 films, and became one of America's biggest box office stars.
While both men began performing on screen at the same time, the height of Gable's celebrity preceded Wayne's by approximately fifteen years. Wayne turned down the lead role in the 1952 film High Noon because he felt the film's story was an allegory against blacklisting, which he actively supported.
In a 1971 interview, Wayne said he considered High Noon “the most un-American thing I've ever seen in my whole life”, and that he would “never regret having helped run screenwriter Carl Foreman out of the country”. : 142 An urban legend has it that in 1955, Wayne turned down the role of Matt Dillon in the long-running television series Gun smoke and recommended James Harness instead.
While he did suggest Harness for the part and introduced him in a prologue to the first episode, no film star of Wayne's stature would have considered a television role at the time. Terry Southern's biographer Lee Hill wrote that the role of Major T. J.
“King” Kong in Dr. Strange love (1964) was originally written with Wayne in mind, and that Stanley Kubrick offered him the part after Peter Sellers injured his ankle during filming; he immediately turned it down. In 1966, Wayne accepted the role of Major Tasman in The Dirty Dozen (1967), and asked Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer for some script changes, but eventually withdrew from the project to make The Green Berets.
Though Wayne actively campaigned for the title role in Dirty Harry (1971), Warner Bros. decided that at 63 he was too old, and cast the 41-year-old Clint Eastwood. Director Peter Bogdanovich and screenwriter Larry McMurphy pitched a film in 1971 called Streets of Laredo that would co-star Wayne along with James Stewart and Henry Fonda.
Stewart and Fonda both agreed to appear in it, but after long consideration, Wayne turned it down, citing his feeling that his character was more underdeveloped and uninteresting than those of his co-stars, which was largely based on John Ford's recommendation after perusing the script. The project was shelved for some twenty years, until McMurphy rewrote and expanded the original screenplay co-written with Bogdanovich to make the novel and subsequent TV miniseries Lonesome Dove, with Tommy Lee Jones in Wayne's role and Robert Duvall playing the part originally written for Stewart in the extremely popular miniseries.
Mel Brooks offered Wayne the role of the Waco Kid (eventually played by Gene Wilder) in Blazing Saddles (1974). After reading the script Wayne declined, fearing the dialogue was “too dirty” for his family-friendly image, but told Brooks that he would be “first in line” to see the movie.
Steven Spielberg offered both Wayne and Charlton Heston the role of Major General Joseph Stairwell in 1941 (1979) with Wayne also considered for a cameo in the film. After reading the script, Wayne decided not to participate due to ill health, but also urged Spielberg not to pursue the project.
Both Wayne and Heston felt the film was unpatriotic. Spielberg recalled, “ was really curious, and so I sent him the script.
He called me the next day and said he felt it was a very un-American movie, and I shouldn't waste my time making it. Producer The Golden Globe Awards are presented annually by the Hollywood Foreign Press Association (FPA) to recognize outstanding achievements in the entertainment industry, both domestic and foreign, and to focus wide public attention upon the best in motion pictures and television.
It was named in honor of Cecil B. Demise (1881–1959), one of the industry's most successful filmmakers; John Wayne won the award in 1966. In 1970, Wayne won a Golden Globe Award for his performance in True Grit.
In 1973, The Harvard Lampoon, a satirical paper run by Harvard University students, invited Wayne to receive The Brass Balls Award, created in his “honor”, after calling him “the biggest fraud in history”. Wayne accepted the invitation as a chance to promote the recently released film MCQ, and a Fort Sevens Army convoy offered to drive him into Harvard Square on an armored personnel carrier.
The ceremony was held on January 15, 1974, at the Harvard Square Theater and the award was officially presented in honor of Wayne's “outstanding machismo and penchant for punching people”. Although the convoy was met with protests by members of the American Indian Movement and others, some of whom threw snowballs, Wayne received a standing ovation from the audience when he walked onto the stage.
^ Duke, We're Glad We Knew You: John Wayne's Friends and Colleagues Remember His Remarkable life by Herb Feign page 230; Retrieved February 13, 2016 ^ Easy Riders Raging Bulls: How the Sex-Drugs-And Rock 'N Roll Generation Saved Hollywood by Peter Bis kind page 372; Retrieved February 13, 2016 ^ Los Angeles Times June 12, 1979; Retrieved February 13, 2016 ^ Kerr, Dave. “ ^ Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States, Jimmy Carter, 1980–1981, Book 2: May 24 to September 26, 1980.
^ Madison County, Iowa, birth certificate. ^ Wayne, John, My Kingdom, unfinished draft autobiography, University of Texas Library.
^ Goldstein p. 12, Holt, Reinhart, and Winston, Norm (1979). CS1 main: multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Roberts, Randy (1997).
^ a b Biography of John Wayne Archived October 13, 2007, at the Payback Machine. New York: Atria Books, a trademark of Simon & Schuster.
Letter, Louise Platt to Ned Scott Archive, July 7, 2002, pp. 40: ^ “Press Kits: American Originals Traveling Exhibit”.
CS1 main: archived copy as title (link) ^ “Happy Birthday today to Raquel Welch: Her 1970 prime time TV special will melt your mind!” ^ Phil Hardy The Encyclopedia of Western Movies, London, Octopus, 1985, ISBN 0-7064-2555-3 ^ Chuck Anderson.
Films in Review, Volume 28, Number 5, May 1977, pp. ^ “Why Stalin loved Tarzan and wanted John Wayne shot” Archived June 2, 2008, at the Payback Machine.
^ John Wayne's racist comments, lack of World War II service resurface in heated Twitter debate”. Howard Hawks: The Grey Fox of Hollywood.
“It's time to take John Wayne's name off the Orange County airport”. America Right Or Wrong: An Anatomy of American Nationalism NEW EDITION.
“Critics call for John Wayne Airport to be renamed after interview resurfaces”. John Wayne's Son Defends Dad Over Shocking Interview”.
John Wayne's son defends his father over remarks in the 1970s interview”. John Wayne Airport Name Change Again Demanded By Orange County Democrats”.
“USC Students Want John Wayne Exhibit Removed, Cite His “Enduring Legacy Of White Supremacy ". “USC will remove a John Wayne exhibit after actor's racist comments resurfaced”.
John Wayne, the horseman of Hollywood, the hero of Stagecoach, symbol of the Yankee soldier, took up the degree of Master. ^ John Wayne's beloved yacht gets historical protection”.
^ Reader's Digest magazine ^ John Wayne Dead of Cancer on Coast at 72”. ^ Company, Our Sunday Visitor Catholic Publishing.
Our Sunday Visitor Catholic Publishing Company. John Wayne, Person and Personal The love affairs of an American legend” in Hopscotch: A Cultural Review, Volume 2, Number 4, 2001, pp.
“Pacific View cemetery: Stars' Graves”. Reprinted in American Movie Critics: An Anthology From the Silents Until Now.
' John Wayne Day' in Calif. Rejected because of actor's statements about minority groups”. ^ “California lawmakers reject John Wayne Day over racist statements”.
John Wayne, Person and Persona: The love affairs of an American legend”. “When Screen Little feather and Marlon Brando Fought John Wayne for the Soul of the Oscars”.
^ John Wayne's heirs lose 'Duke' legal brawl”. ^ Lee Hill, A Grand Guy: The Life and Art of Terry Southern (Bloomsbury, 2001), pp.118–119 ^ Lyman, S. John Wayne : The Life and Legend.