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Name For Wallflower

author
James Smith
• Sunday, 16 May, 2021
• 10 min read

Erysimum solarium Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantar Clade : Tracheophytes Clade : Angiosperms Clade : Edicts Clade : Rosins Order: Brassieres Family: Brassicaceae Genus: Elysium L. Species Synonyms and others Wallflowers are annuals, herbaceous perennials or sub-shrubs. The perennial species are short-lived and in cultivation treated as biennials.

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Contents

Most species have stems erect, somewhat winged, cane scent with an indumentum of IFID hairs, usually 25 ± 53 cm × 2–3 mm in size, and t-shaped trachomas. The lower leaves are linear to oblanceolate pinnatifid with backwardly directed lobes, acute, 50–80 mm × 0.5–3 mm.

Inflorescence are produced in racemes, with bright yellow to red or pink bilateral and hermaphrodite, misogynous and ebracteateflowers. Flowering occurs during spring and summer.

One species, Elysium semperflorens, native to Morocco and Algeria, has white flowers. The floral pedicle ranges from 4 to 7 mm.

The genus name Elysium is derived from the Greek word 'Ergo' meaning to drag. Wallflowers are native to southwest Asia, the Mediterranean, Europe, Africa (Cab Verde), Micronesia, and North America through Costa Rica.

Many wallflowers are endemic to small areas, such as: Most wallflower garden cultivars (e.g. Elysium 'Chelsea Jacket') are derived from E. chart (often placed in Characters), from Southern Europe.

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They are often attacked by fungal and bacterial disease, so they are best grown as biennials and discarded after flowering. They are also susceptible to clubfoot, a disease of Brassicaceae.

Growth is best in dry soils with very good drainage, and they are often grown successfully in loose wall mortar, hence the vernacular name. There is a wide range of flower color in the warm spectrum, including white, yellow, orange, red, pink, maroon, purple and brown.

The flowers, appearing in spring, usually have a strong fragrance. Wallflowers are often associated in spring bedding schemes with tulips and forget-me-nots.

Elysium is found in a range of habitats across the Northern Hemisphere, and has developed diverse morphology and growth habits (herbaceous annual or perennial, and woody perennial). Different Elysium species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths) species including the garden carpet (Xanthorhoe fluctuate).

In addition, some species of weevils, like Ceutorhynchus chloroplasts, live inside the fruits feeding on the developing seeds. Many species of beetles, bugs and grasshoppers eat the leaves and stalks.

(Source: www.etsy.com)

Some mammalian herbivores, for example mule deer (Odocoileus heinous) in North America, alkali (Ovis Amman) in Mongolia, red deer (Corvus Dreyfus) in Central Europe, or Spanish ibex (Capra Prentice) in the Iberian Peninsula, feed on wallflower flowering and fruiting stalks. Elysium crepidifolium (pale wallflower) is toxic to some generalist vertebrate herbivores.

Most wallflowers are pollinator-generalists, their flowers being visited by many species of bees, bee flies, overflies, butterflies, beetles, and ants. For example, Elysium solarium is pollinated almost exclusively by Anaphora alluded.

Like most Brassicaceae, species in the genus Elysium produce glucosinolates as defensive compounds. However, unlike almost all other genera in the Brassicaceae, Elysium also accumulates cardiac glucosides, another class of phytochemicals with an ecological importance in insect defense.

Cardiac glucosides specifically function to prevent insect herbivory and/or opposition by blocking ion channel function in muscle cells. These chemicals are toxic enough to deter generalist, and even some specialist insect herbivores.

Cardiac glucoside production is widespread in Elysium, with at least 48 species in the genus containing these compounds. Accumulation of cardiac glucosides in Elysium crepidifolium, but not other tested species, is induced by treatment with harmonic acid and methyl carbonate, endogenous electors of chemical defenses in many plant species.

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Molecular phylogenetic analysis indicates that Elysium diversification from other Brassicaceae species that do not produce cardiac glucosides began in the Pliocene (2.33–5.2 million years ago), suggesting relatively recent evolution of cardiac glucosides as a defensive trait in this genus. The evolution of novel chemical defenses in plants, such as cardenolides in the genus Elysium, is predicted to allow escape from herbivory by specialist herbivores and expansion into new ecological niches.

The crucifer-feeding specialist Pierces RAPACE (white cabbage butterfly) is deterred from feeding and opposition by cardenolides in Elysium cheiranthoides. Similarly, Anthocyanin card amines (orange tip butterfly), which opposite on almost all cruiser species, avoids E. cheiranthoides.

Elysium serum (western wallflower) is resistant to feeding and opposition of Paris Nazi macdunnoughii (synonym Paris marginalia, margined white butterfly). And Phyllotreta SP., were deterred from feeding by cardenolides that were applied to their preferred food plants.

Consistent with the hypothesis of enhanced speciation after escape from herbivory, phylogenetic studies involving 128 Elysium species indicate diversification in Eurasia between 0.5 and 2 million years ago, and in North America between 0.7 and 1.65 million years ago.) This evolutionarily rapid expansion of the Elysium genus has resulted in several hundred known species distributed throughout the Northern Hemisphere.

Elysium species have a long history of use in traditional medicine. In Naturalist Historian by Pliny the Elder (~77), Elysium is classified as a medicinal rather than a food plant.

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Elysium chart is described as a medicinal herb in De Material Media by Pedants Discords (~70), which was the predominant European medical pharmacopeia for more than 1,500 years. Other medieval descriptions of medicinal herbs and their uses, including the Dispensatorium DES Corpus by Valerie Corpus (1542), Bock's Kräuterbuch by Hieronymus Bock (1577), and Tabernaemontanus’ New Kreuterbuch by Jacobus Theodore Tabernaemontanus (1588), also discuss applications of E. chart.

In traditional Chinese medicine, Elysium cheiranthoides has been used to treat heart disease and other ailments. Although medical uses of Elysium became uncommon in Europe after the Middle Ages, Elysium diffuse, as well as purified erosion and erysimoside, have been applied more recently as Ukrainian ethnobotanical treatments.

^ a b c d Mazzini, Hamid; Zaire, Shah in; Peal, Bernard E.; Bertrand, Yann J. K.; German, Dmitry A.; Al-Shabab, Than A.; Mummenhoff, Klaus; Oilman, Bent (2014). “Phylogenetic perspectives on diversification and character evolution in the species-rich genus Elysium (Erysipelas; Brassicaceae) based on a densely sampled ITS approach”.

Botanical Journal of the Linear Society. ^ a b Al-Shabab, Than A.; Wind ham, Michael D.; Warwick, Suzanne I.; O'Kane, Steve L.; Mummenhoff, Klaus; Mayer, Michael; Koch, Marcus A.; Bailey, C. Donovan (2006).

The 'Cruciform' of continental North America : systematic of the mustard family from the Arctic to Panama. “Die Getting Elysium AUF den Valverde, Easier UND Madeira”.

flowers
(Source: www.flickr.com)

Word-, West-, Zentraleuropa, Rumanian UND Westlife Balkan-Halbinsel bis Albanian”. Annals DES Naturhistorischen Museums in Wain.

Serie B fur Botanic UND Zoologist. ^ Archibald William Smith A Gardener's Handbook of Plant Names: Their Meanings and Origins, p. 148, at Google Books ^ RHS A-Z encyclopedia of garden plants.

Giftpflanzen, Pflanzengifte : Giftpflanzen von A-Z : Notfallhilfe : Workmen, Working, Therapies : allergic UND phototoxische Reaction. Bleacher Choleric (Elysium crepidifolium).

^ Baha, Jed W.; Weizmann, Amy T.; Tally, Paul (2001). “The chemical diversity and distribution of glucosinolates and isothiocyanates among plants”.

^ Must, Tobias; Stickler, Susan R; Powell, Adrian F; Mary, McKenzie E; An, Hong; Mirzam, Mahdi eh; York, Thomas; Holland, Cynthia K; Kumar, Pavan; Era, Matthias; Petschenka, Georg; Gómez, José-María; Perfect ti, Francisco; Müller, Caroline; Fires, J Chris; Mueller, Lukas; Wander, Georg (2021-04-07). “Independent evolution of ancestral and novel defenses in a genus of toxic plants (Elysium, Brassicaceae)”.

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^ Must, Tobias; Mirzam, Mahdi eh; Wander, Georg (2018-03-20). “Elysium cheiranthoides, an ecological research system with potential as a genetic and genomic model for studying cardiac glucoside biosynthesis”.

^ a b Makarios, FI; Zhernoklev, KV; Slyusarskaya, TB (1994). “Poisoned cuisines: toxicity of milkweed latex and cardenolides to some generalist caterpillars”.

“Chemical Constituents of Elysium cheiranthoides Deterring Opposition by the Cabbage Butterfly, Paris RAPACE “. ^ Paula, S; Tibet, MR; Ball, WE (2005).

“Interactions between cardiac glucosides and sodium potassium-ATPase: three-dimensional structure)activity relationship models for ligand binding to the E2-Pi form of the enzyme versus activity inhibition”. “Effect of the cardenolide digoxin on performance of gypsy moth (Mantra disbar) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) caterpillars”.

^ Russian, s; Johnson, MD; Agrawal, AA (2009). “Induced responses to herbivory and carbonate in three milkweed species”.

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^ a b Must, Tobias; Stickler, Susan R.; Powell, Adrian F.; Mary, McKenzie E.; An, Hong; Mirzam, Mahdi eh; York, Thomas; Holland, Cynthia K.; Kumar, Pavan (2019-09-08). “Rapid and independent evolution of ancestral and novel defenses in a genus of toxic plants (Brassicaceae)”.

^ Bunker, Jennifer; Ernst, Mona; Müller-Uri, Frailer; Eras, Wolfgang (2014). “Identification and stress-induced expression of three 3-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase from Elysium crepidifolium RCH.

^ Huang, Chien-Hsun; Sun, Reran; HU, I; Zen, Living; Zhang, King; CAI, Liming; Zhang, Jiang; Koch, Marcus A.; Al-Shabab, Than; Edger, Patrick P.; Fires, J. Chris; Tan, Duncan; Thong, Yang; Ma, Hong (2015). “Resolution of Brassicaceae Phylogeny Using Nuclear Genes Uncovers Nested Radiations and Supports Convergent Morphological Evolution”.

Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden. “Chemical stimulants and deterrents regulating acceptance or rejection of cruisers by cabbage butterflies”.

“Constituents of host- and non-host plants deterring opposition by the cabbage butterfly, Paris RAPACE”. “Chemical constituents of an unacceptable cruiser, Erysimum cheiranthoides, deter feeding years RAPACE”.

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“Cardenolides fromErysimum cheiranthoides: Feeding deterrents toppers RAPACE larvae”. “Host Plants, Nectar Source Plants, and Habitat Selection of Males and Females of Anthocyanin card amines (Lepidoptera)”.

“Coevolution of paired butterflies and their calciferous food plants”. “Coevolution of Paired Butterflies and Their Calciferous Food plants.

The Distribution of Eggs on Potential Food plants”. “Host Plant Discrimination within Cruciform: Feeding Responses of Four Leaf Beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) to Glucosinolates, Cucurbitacins and Cardenolides”.

“Host Plant Selection of Monogamous and Oligophagous Flea Beetles Feeding on Cruisers”. Harbin: Heilongjiang Science and Technology Publishing House.

“Die herzwirksamen Glucoside von Characters Chart UND verwandten Arden”. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Elysium. Look up wallflower in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

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