In ecclesiastical history, Zeno is associated with the Mention or “instrument of union”, promulgated by him and signed by all the Eastern bishops, with the design of solving the monophasic controversy. Zeno caused Ardabil's fall, producing treacherous letters that linked him to the Sassanian King; Ardabil later bribed some of Zeno's soldiers into trying to kill him. Zeno's original name was Tara sis, and more accurately Tarasikodissa in his native Saurian language (Latin : Trascalissaeus).
Tara sis was born in Saurian, at Rusumblada, later renamed Metropolis in Zeno's honor. His father was called Louisa (as attested by his patronymic “Tarasicodissa”), his mother Wallis, his brother Longings.
Tara sis had a wife, Arcadia, whose name indicates a relationship with the Constantinopolitan aristocracy, and whose statue was erected near the Baths of Radius, along the steps that led to Topi. Near Eastern and other Christian traditions maintain that Zeno had two daughters, Hilario and Theorist, who followed a religious life, but historical sources attest the existence of only one son by Arcadia, called Xenon.
The Saurian were a people who lived inland from the Mediterranean coast of Anatolia, in the core of the Taurus Mountains (generally what is now the Kenya / Booker area of Turkey). However, being Orthodox Christians rather than Arians, as the Goths and other Germanic tribes were, they were not formally barred from the throne.
According to some scholars, in the mid-460s, the Eastern Roman Emperor, Leo I, wanted to balance the weight of the Germanic component of the army, whose leader was the Alan master minimum Spar. According to ancient sources, the earliest reference to Tara sis dates back to 464, when he put his hands on some letters written by Spar's son, Ardabil, which proved that the son of the master minimum had incited the Sassanian King to invade Roman territory, promising to support the invasion.
Through these letters, which Tara sis gave to Leo, the Emperor could dismiss Ardabil, who at the time was master minimum per Oriented and Patricia, thus reducing Spar's influence and ambition. As reward for his loyalty, which Leo praised to Daniel the Stylize, Tara sis was appointed comes domesticorum, an office of great influence and prestige.
This appointment could mean that Tara sis had been a protector domestics, either at Leo's court in Constantinople, or attached at Ardabil's staff in Antioch. In 465, Leo and Spar quarrelled about the appointment of consuls for the following year; it was on this occasion that Tara sis' position was strengthened, as he became friend and ally of the Emperor.
Son-in-law of Leo I Relief of Ariadne, elder daughter of Emperor Leo I and wife of Zeno. To make himself more acceptable to the Roman hierarchy and the population of Constantinople, Tara sis adopted the Greek name of Zeno and used it for the rest of his life. In mid-late 466, Zeno married Ariadne, elder daughter of Leo I and Verona ; there is no reference to him divorcing Arcadia who evidently died prior to this.
Zeno, however, was not present at the birth of his son, as in 467, he participated in a military campaign against the Goths. The following year, during which he held the honor of the consulate, he was appointed master minimum per Thracian and led an expedition in Thrace.
The sources do not clearly state what enemy he fought there, and historians had proposed either Goths or Huns, or the rebels of Analyses. Indeed, Leo sent some of his personal soldiers with Zeno to protect him, but they were bribed by Spar to capture him instead.
Zeno was informed of their intention and fled to Service, and, because of this episode, Leo grew even more suspicious of Spar. After the attack, Zeno did not return to Constantinople, where Spar and Ardabil were, still with considerable power.
While waiting here for an opportunity to return to the capital, he was appointed master minimum per Oriented. He took the monk Peter the Fuller with him and left for Antioch, his office's see, passing through Saurian, where he put down the rebellion of Indices.
While living in Antioch with his family, Zeno sympathized with the Monophasic views of Peter the Fuller, and supported him against his opponent, the Caledonian bishop Martyrs. Zeno allowed the arrival in Antioch of monks from nearby monasteries who increased the number of Peter's followers, and did not effectively repress their violence.
Martyrs went to Constantinople to ask Leo for help, but, on returning to Antioch, he was informed that Peter had been elected bishop, and resigned (470). Leo reacted by ordering Peter into exile and addressing to Zeno a law that forbade the monks from leaving their monasteries or fomenting rebellion (1 June 471).
With Zeno far from Constantinople, Spar had increased his influence by having his son Patricia appointed Caesar and married to Leo I's younger daughter, Leonid (470). Sources are contradictory on the causes, but clearly state that in 471, Leo I had Spar and Ardabil treacherously killed.
Since Leo II was seven years old (too young to rule himself) Ariadne and her mother Verona prevailed upon him to crown Zeno, his father, as co-emperor, which he did on 9 February 474. Zeno had to settle matters with the Vandal King, Generic, who was conducting raids against the Empire's coastal cities, threatening key commercial sea routes.
Despite this success, Zeno continued to be unpopular with the people and Senate because of his barbarian origins; his right to the throne was limited to his marriage with Ariadne and his relationship to Verona, the dowager Empress. However, Verona decided to overthrow her son-in-law Zeno and replace him with her lover, the ex- master officious Patricia, with the help of her brother Basilicas.
The conspirators fomented riots in the capital against the Saurian emperor; Basilicas succeeded also in convincing Illus, Trounces and the Ostrogothic general Theodoric Strabo to join the plot. Basilicas took the throne for himself, putting to death Verona's lover and candidate, Patricia.
Basilicas appointed his nephew Armature master minimum, thus alienating Theodoric Strabo. Since Zeno had left no money, Basilicas was forced to levy heavy taxes.
The people of Constantinople also put the blame on him for a great fire that burned several parts of the city. Basilicas tried to recover popular support and sent another army against Zeno, under his nephew Armature' command.
Zeno succeeded in bribing Armature too, promising to confirm his rank of master minimum praesentalis for life and promoting his son (also called Basilicas) to the rank of Caesar ; Armature' army failed to intercept Zeno's troops during their march on Constantinople. The Senate opened the gates of the city to the Saurian, allowing the deposed emperor to resume the throne.
Betrayed by the Patriarch Acacias, he surrendered himself and his family after extracting a solemn promise from Zeno not to shed their blood. Basilicas and his family were sent to a fortress in Cappadocia, where Zeno had them enclosed in a dry cistern, to die from exposure.
After his restoration, Zeno fulfilled his promises, letting Armature keep his title of master minimum praesentalis (possibly even raising him to the rank of Patricia) and appointing his son Basilicas Caesar in Nicaea. Zeno confiscated all of Armature' properties, deposed his son Basilicas, and had him ordained as a priest.
End of the Western Empire This solidus was minted by Officer in the name of Zeno. Officer ruled Italy under the formal patronage of the Eastern Emperor. The western emperor Lyrics died in the autumn of 472.
Leo I refused to endorse Glycerin and elevated his nephew Julius EPOS to co-emperor for the west in 473. EPOS arrived in Italy, quickly deposed Glycerin who offered no resistance, and was proclaimed emperor by the Roman Senate in June 474.
In August 475, during Basilicas reign, while Zeno was in Saurian blocked by Illus army, Orestes, the western master minimum, revolted, forcing EPOS to flee Italy for Dalmatia; Orestes proclaimed his own son Romulus Augustus emperor, but was unable to gain the allegiance of the remnants of the Western Empire outside of Italy. One year later, while Zeno was entering Constantinople to end Basilicas' brief usurpation, Romulus and Orestes were overthrown by the Chieftain Officer.
With the support of Officer, the Roman Senate sent an envoy to present the imperial insignia to the restored Zeno. They asked Zeno to dissolve the separation of the empire and rule as sole Emperor; also, to appoint Officer both Patricia and official imperial governor of Italy.
Officer was officially recognized and left in possession of Italy, while EPOS kept his title and the other fragments of the empire's western holdings, but no army. Perhaps in deference to Zeno, Officer recognized EPOS' du jour reign in Italy until his death, ruling and even minting coins in his name, but he never allowed his return.
With the help of his brothers Proclaims Anthems and Romulus, he gathered in Constantinople troops composed of both citizens and foreigners in the house of a Caesars, south of the Forum of Theodosius, and from there they marched at the same time on the imperial palace and on the house of Illus, who was a supporter of Zeno. The emperor almost fell into the hands of the rebels, who, during the day, overwhelmed the imperial troops, who were also attacked by citizens from the roofs of their houses.
During the night, however, Illus moved an Saurian unit, quartered in nearby Caledonia, into Constantinople and also corrupted Marian's soldiers, who allowed Zeno to flee. The following morning, Marian, understanding that his situation was desperate and that reinforcements from Theodoric Strabo would not arrive in time, took refuge in the church of the Holy Apostles, but was arrested with his brothers.
They tried to flee, but Marian was captured and obliged to become a monk in Tarsus (Militia), or imprisoned in Saurian, in the fortress of Papyrus. Verona's attempt was unsuccessful, and Zeno, equally jealous of her and of Illus, banished her at the suggestion of the latter, confining her in the fort of Papyrus.
Having traversed Asia Minor, they raised the standard of revolt in 484, when Illus declared Lentils Emperor. Zeno sent an army to fight them, but Illus won, obtained possession of Papyrus, released Verona, and induced her to crown Lentils at Tarsus.
Affairs with the Goths (474–487) Bronze weight with the name of Theodoric the Great, King of the Ostrogoths and ruler of Italy. Although Zeno at times contrived to play them off against each other, they in turn were able to profit by his dynastic rivalries.
The leader of the Thracian Goths sent an embassy to the Emperor, offering peace and blaming the Median Theodoric. Zeno understood that this offering was hiding further conspiracies, and convinced the Senate and army to declare Strabo a public enemy.
He sent the Jamal against Strabo, who supported the revolt of Marian, with the promise of a huge Roman force as reinforcement (478). The two Theodoric agreed to put forward a joint request to the Emperor, in order to extend to the south the settlement territory of the Ostrogoths in Media.
The Imperial army obtained some initial successes, but Zeno did not press his advantage, and allowed the Jamal to move westward in Thrace, plundering territories as he went. However, the army of Theodoric Strabo, 30,000-men strong was still a menace for Zeno, who convinced the Bulgar's to attack the Thracian Goths in their own base.
Strabo defeated the Bulgar's in 480/481, and moved towards Constantinople, but he had to deal with problems with his own men, so he could not capitalize upon his victory and was forced to return to Greece. After Theodoric Strabo died in 481, the future Theodoric the Great became king of the entire Ostrogoth nation and continued to be a source of trouble in the Balkan peninsula.
Zeno allied to Theodoric, whom he appointed master minimum praesentalis and even consul for the year 484, the first time a barbarian who was not a citizen of the Empire reached such a high distinction. Zeno had Theodoric fight against Illus and the usurper Lentils, besieging them at Papyrus in 484–488.
However, in 486 Theodoric revolted again and attacked Constantinople, severing the city's water supply. Zeno bought a peace and agreed with Theodoric that the Ostrogoths should have gone to invade Italy to fight Officer, who had allegedly supported Lentils, and to establish his new kingdom there (487).
All other symbol or mathematic were excluded; Etches and Nestorius were unmistakably condemned in an anathema, while the twelve chapters of Cyril of Alexandria were accepted. The teaching of Chalcedony was not so much repudiated as passed over in silence; Jesus Christ was described as the “only-begotten Son of God one and not two” and there was no explicit reference to the two natures.
The bishop of Rome, Pope Felix III, refused to accept the document and excommunicated Acacias (484), thus beginning the Acacia schism, which lasted until 519. In 488 the patriarch of Antioch, Peter the Fuller, came to Constantinople to have his right to the Church of Cyprus confirmed.
The bishop claimed that before his departure, he had had a vision of St. Barnabas, in which the position of the tomb of the apostle had been revealed to him. In the tomb, Anthems had found the relics of the apostle and a copy of the Gospel of Matthew written in Hebrew by Barnabas himself.
Zeno received the relics and the manuscript, and in exchange he proclaimed the autonomy of the Church of Cyprus. Zeno then took for himself Mount Gemini, where the Samaritans worshiped God, and built several edifices, among which a tomb for his recently deceased son, on which he put a cross, so that the Samaritans, worshiping God, would prostrate in front of the tomb.
The rebels attacked Sachem, burnt five churches built on Samaritan holy places and cut off the fingers of bishop Terebinthus, who was officiating the ceremony of Whit sun. They elected Just (or Juntas/Gustavus) as their king and moved to Caesar, where a significant Samaritan community lived.
According to John Malala, the duxPalestinae Asclepius, whose troops were reinforced by the Caesarea-based Arcadian of Ranges, defeated Just, killed him and sent his head to Zeno. According to Proclaims of Caesar, Terebinthus went to Zeno to ask for revenge; the Emperor personally went to Samaria to quell the rebellion.
Modern historians believe that the order of the facts preserved by Samaritan sources should be inverted, as the persecution of Zeno was a consequence of the rebellion rather than its cause, and should have happened after 484, around 489. Zeno rebuilt the church of St. Proclaims in Annapolis (Sachem) and the Samaritans were banned from Mount Gemini, on whose top a signalling tower was built to alert in case of civil unrest.
Zeno died on 9 April 491, of dysentery or of epilepsy, after ruling for 17 years and 2 months. Ariadne then chose a favored member of the Imperial court, Anastasios, to succeed Zeno, whose brother Longings revolted, starting the Saurian War.
Could be heard from within his very antique sarcophagus, but because of the hatred of his wife and subjects, Ariadne refused to open the tomb. The game is similar to backgammon ; Zeno (red) threw 2, 5 and 6 and was forced to leave eight pieces alone and thus exposed to capture.
As in backgammon, Zeno could not move to a space occupied by two opponent (black) pieces. An anonymous Greek drama is modelled on this Latin Zeno, belonging to the so-called Cretan Theater.
This version was written and performed at Zakynthos in 1682–83 and has Zeno buried alive and his brother Longings executed. The plot is loosely based on history; here Zeno flees to Italy and tries to convince Romulus Augustus to unite their forces and fight together, but his plan fails.
^ a b Stephen Mitchell, A history of the later Roman Empire, AD 284–641: the transformation of the ancient world, Wiley-Blackwell, 2007, ISBN 1-4051-0856-8, p. 114. ^ Terry G. Wilfong, Women of Meme: lives in a Coptic town in late antique Egypt, University of Michigan Press, 2002, ISBN 0-472-06612-9, p. 35.
^ Stephen Mitchell, A history of the later Roman Empire, AD 284–641: the transformation of the ancient world, Wiley-Blackwell, 2007, ISBN 1-4051-0857-6, pp. ^ The source is Photius's epitome of the first book of Candid us of Isauria's chronicle (Broke, p. 161).
^ There exist some solidi and premises in the name of “Zeno and Leo nob CAES”. They have been attributed to Zeno as emperor and to Armature' son as Caesar ; in this case Armature' son would have changed his name from Basilicas, the name of the usurper, to Leo, the dynastic name of Zeno's house (Philip Grierson, Melinda Mays, Catalog of late Roman coins in the Lumberton Oaks Collection and in the Whitmore Collection: from Radius and Honors to the accession of Anastasios, Lumberton Oaks, 1992, ISBN 0-88402-193-9, pp.
^ Various Scholastic us, Historian ecclesiastical, 3.26. ^ William Smith, Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, volume 2, p. 570. ^ Zeno had become allied in this occasion with Theodoric the Jamal, whose Goths had moved to attack the Empire.
It has been suggested that Constantinople was defenseless during Zeno's siege because the master minimum Strabo had moved to the north to counter this menace. ^ Stephen Mitchell, A history of the later Roman Empire, AD 284–641: the transformation of the ancient world, Wiley-Blackwell, 2007, ISBN 1-4051-0856-8, pp.
^ Alexander A. Vasiliy, History of the Byzantine Empire, 324–1453, Volume 1, University of Wisconsin Press, 1958, ISBN 0-299-80925-0, pp. ^ Alan David Crown, The Samaritans, Moor Seebeck, 1989, ISBN 3-16-145237-2, pp.
Cited in Michael Whitby, The ecclesiastical history of Various Scholastic us, Liverpool University Press, 2000, ISBN 0-85323-605-4, p. 164. ^ a b c Austin, Roland G. “Zeno's Game of ”, The Journal of Hellenic Studies 54:2, 1934. Pp 202–205.
^ Robert Charles Bell, Board and table games from many civilizations, Courier Dover Publications, 1979, ISBN 0-486-23855-5, pp. ^ James A. Parents, Religious drama and the humanist tradition: Christian theater in Germany and in the Netherlands, 1500–1680, BRILL, 1987, ISBN 90-04-08094-5, pp.
Bruce Merry, Encyclopedia of modern Greek literature, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2004, ISBN 0-313-30813-6, p. 419. Raghav Kaminski, The Emperor Zeno: Religion and Politics (Byzantine ET Slavic cracoviensia 6), Cracow 2010.