Like the novel, the film is broken into four sections telling two intertwining stories, that of the war itself (featuring some of the most elaborate battles ever filmed) and that of the romance of Russian aristocrats Count Pierre Bezukhov (Sergei Bondarchuk) and Countess Natasha Rostov (Lydia Saliva). The movies have done a lot of borrowing during their long climb to the status of an art form, but they've also invented an approach or two.
-- of times when Hollywood has marshaled casts of thousands and budgets of millions to create yet another epoch-shattering spectacular. There was blood and thunder in Ben-Hur, ” beauty and romance in Doctor Zhivago, ” Charlton Heston in half of them, Peter Ustinov in the rest, Rome falling daily, slaves rising weekly, wars won at least once a month, and several miracles a year from Cecil B.
What happened, though, was that “Cleopatra” brought an end to the epic budget race. For this reason, among many others, the Russian version of War and Peace is a magnificently unique film.
It is hard to imagine that circumstances will ever again combine to make a more spectacular, expensive, and -- yes -- splendid movie. By now the statistics regarding War and Peace are well known, but forgive me if I recite them with a certain relish anyway: the film was five years in the making at a cost of $100,000,000, with a cast of 120,000, all clothed in authentic uniforms, and the Red Army was mobilized to recreate Napoleon's battles exactly (it is claimed) as they happened.
The prestige of the Soviet film industry rested on War and Peace for half a decade, and the result looks like it. It is difficult to imagine this massive, six-hour film playing neighborhood theaters or turning up on the late show.
What is extraordinary about War and Peace is that Bondarchuk was able to take the enormous bulk of Leo Tolstoy's novel and somehow transform it into this great chunk of film without losing control along the way. The trouble with a lot of long epic films is that the makers can't keep everything in hand.
Even in the longest, bloodiest, battle scenes there are vignettes that stand out: A soldier demanding a battlefield commendation, a crazed horse whirling away from an explosion, an enigmatic exchange between Napoleon and his lieutenants. Bondarchuk is able to bring his epic events down to comprehensible scale without losing his sense of the spectacular.
Perhaps Vyacheslav Honor, as Prince Andrei, comes closest with his chiseled face. Bondarchuk made a happy choice when he cast the beautiful Ludwig Savelyeva as Natasha.
Bondarchuk cast himself as Pierre, the self-tormented intellectual, and it is his strong performance that provides the central thread of the complicated story. He looks something like Rod Stager and acts something like him, with bemused comments to himself and a quiet face concealing a furnace of emotion.
And it is to a mass audience, not an intellectual minority, that War and Peace is directed. Considering its cost and the vast effort that went into its making, such a film can be made only once in our time.
Edit Cast overview, first billed only: Audrey Hepburn ... Natasha Rostov Henry Fonda ... Pierre Bezukhov Mel Ferret ... Prince Andrei Bolkonsky Victoria Gasman ... Anatole Keratin Herbert Low ... Napoleon Oskar Gomulka ... Field Marshal Kutuzov (as Oscar Gomulka) Anita Berg ... Helene Urging Helmut Dan tine ... Molotov Julio Carminative ...
Prince Mikhail Andreevich Rostov Milly Vital ... Lisa Bolkonskaya Lea Sail ... Countess Rostov Anna Maria Ferraro ... Maria Bolkonskaya Wilfred Lawson ... Prince Bolkonsky (as Wilfred Lawson) May Britt ... Sonia Rostov View production, box office, & company info.
Russia, one of the few countries still unconquered, prepares to face Napoleon's troops together with Austria. Amongst the Russian soldiers, are Count Nikolai Rostov (Jeremy Brett) and Prince Andrei Bolkonsky (Mel Ferret).
Count Pierre Bezukhov (Henry Fonda), a friend of Andrei's, and self-styled intellectual, who is not interested in fighting. He is attracted to Natasha Rostov (Audrey Hepburn), Nikolai's sister, but she is too young, so he gives in to baser desires and marries the shallow, manipulative Princess Helene (Anita Berg).
Andrei is captured and later released by the French, and returns home only to watch his wife die in childbirth. Andrei sees Natasha and falls in love, but his father will only permit the marriage if ...
Edit Trivia Henry Fonda was twenty-four years older than co-star Audrey Hepburn. Goofs In the first battle, Prince Andrei dismounts to take the flag of the shot soldier who is holding it.
Quotes Platoon Karate : Where there's law, there's injustice. In the one, the credits are set against a neutral background, in the other against details of a painting of Napoleon in front of his troops.
Soundtracks Les roses DE Novgorod (credited) Music by Niño Rota Lyrics by Nadine Lack Sung by Eva See more » Edit Cast overview, first billed only: Sergey Bondarchuk ... Pierre Bezukhov Lydia Saliva ... Natasha Rostov Vyacheslav Dishonor ...
Prince Andrei Bolkonsky Boris Baklava ... Field Marshal Kutuzov Anatolia Kirov ... Prince Nikolai Andreevich Bolkonsky Anastasia Vertinskaya ... Process Lisa Bolkonskaya Antonia Shuranova ... Princess Maria Bolkonskaya Oleg Nabokov ... Nikolai Rostov Viktor Stanton ... Ilya Andreyevich Rostov Irina Skobtseva ... Helene Bezukhova Boris Smirnoff ...
Prince Vasiliy Keratin Vasiliy Lenovo ... Anatole Keratin Kira Gloves ... Countess Rostov Irina Guyana ... Sonia Rostov Aleksandr Boris ... Uncle Rostov View production, box office, & company info. One is the love story of young Countess Natasha Rostov and Count Pierre Bezukhov, who is unhappy in his marriage.
The 500,000 strong Napoleons's army moves through Russia and causes much destruction, culminating in the battle of Borodin. Moscow is occupied, looted and burned down, but soon Napoleon loses control and has to flee.
Both sides suffer tremendous losses in the war, and Russian society is left irrevocably changed. Goofs When some characters are attending the opera, “L'incoronazione DI Popped” by Claudio Monteverdi is being performed.
The anachronism is probably intentional since Monteverdi's tale of the destructiveness of erotic desire foreshadows the events immediately after that scene. Quotes Platoon Karate : Lord, lay me down like a stone and raise me up like new bread.
They also say that it was “restored” in 1988, which may mean (they don't explain) that in that year it was trimmed of perhaps some ideological additions which were demanded of the director when he originally filmed it. The DVD put out by the Russian Cinema Council (Rustic) is 403 minutes, and is currently the longest version out there, and the only one in the correct aspect ratio.
Soundtracks Prologue (credited) from “L'Incoronazione di Popped” Composed by Claudio Monteverdi Written by Giovanni Francesco BusenelloSee more » Employing a cast of thousands and an array of innovative camera techniques, director Sergei Bondarchuk conjures a sweeping vision of grand balls that glitter with rococo beauty and breathtaking battles that overwhelm with their expressionistic power.
Country Soviet UnionLanguageBudget 8,291,712 Soviet rubles (US$9.2 million) Box office58,000,000 Soviet rubles (USSR estimate) In St. Petersburg of 1805, Pierre Bezukhov, the illegitimate son of a rich nobleman, is introduced to high society.
His friend, Prince Andrei Bolkonsky, joins the Imperial Russian Army as aide-de-camp of General Mikhail Kutuzov in the War of the Third Coalition against Napoleon. As Pierre's father recognizes him, Pierre attracts the attention of Helene Keratin and marries her, only to learn through rumor that she has been unfaithful and slept with Fedora Molotov, an intimate of Helene's brother Anatole.
Meanwhile, Andrei takes part in the failed campaign in Austria, where he witnesses the Battle of Schöngrabern and the Battle of Austerlitz, is badly wounded and mistaken for dead. He returns to his father's estate just in time to witness his wife Lisa die during childbirth.
In the end of 1809, Natasha, the young daughter of a count attends her first ball at age 16. Andrei Bolkonsky falls in love with her and intends to marry her, but his father demands they wait.
Andrei travels abroad, and Natasha desperately longs for him. But she then meets the handsome Anatole Keratin who falls in love with her and follows her with much passion.
Overwhelmed Natasha decides she prefers him over Andrei. At the last minute, she regrets her choice and abandons her plans to elope with Anatole.
However, Andrei has heard of her plans and declares their betrothal is over. Pierre, trying to calm her down, suddenly announces he loves her.
Field Marshal Kutuzov is appointed by the Tsar to defend the land. Kutuzov asks Andrei to join him as a staff officer, but he requests a command in the field.
Pierre approaches the battlefield of the upcoming confrontation between the armies during the Battle of Borodin, he volunteers to assist in an artillery battery. Andrei's unit waits in the reserve, but he is hit by a shell and both he and Anatole suffer severe wounds.
The battle involves hundreds of thousands of soldiers, thousands of horses, hundreds of cannons firing from both sides. As Moscow is set ablaze by the retreating Russians, the Rostov's flee their estate, taking wounded soldiers with them, and unbeknownst to them, also Andrei.
Pierre, dressed as a peasant, tries to assassinate Napoleon but is taken prisoner. As the French are forced to retreat, he is marched for months with the Grande Armée, until being freed by partisans.
The French Armies are defeated by Field Marshal Kutuzov in the Battle of Ransom. She reunites with Pierre, and they marry as Moscow is being rebuilt.
An open letter which appeared in the Soviet press, signed by many of the country's filmmakers, declared: “It is a matter of honor for the Soviet cinema industry, to produce a picture which will surpass the American-Italian one in its artistic merit and authenticity.” According to Der Spiegel, the film was to serve as a “counterstroke” to Vigor.
During 1960, several leading Soviet directors proposed themselves to head the project, including Mikhail Room and Sergei Asimov. But soon, the only viable candidate remaining was Ivan Pyre.
As his selection to the position seemed secure, several officials in the Ministry of Culture offered it to forty-year-old Sergei Bondarchuk, who had completed his directorial debut, Destiny of a Man, in 1959. Bondarchuk had not sought out the position and did not know of the proposal until a letter from the Ministry reached him, but he chose to accept it and contend with Pyre.
Author Fedora Yaakov wrote that the invitation of Bondarchuk was orchestrated by Pyre's many enemies in the establishment, who were determined not to let him receive the lucrative project; in early February 1961, a letter endorsing Bondarchuk was sent to the Minister, signed by several prominent figures from the cinema industry. At first, Further decreed that both candidates would each direct a pilot to be screened before a commission.
Yaakov believed he had done so after realizing his chances were slim: Bondarchuk, whose career began only during the Thaw, represented a generation of young directors promoted by Nikita Khrushchev's Kremlin to replace the old filmmakers from the Stalin era. In the end of February, after Pyre conceded, the Minister held a meeting and confirmed Bondarchuk as the director.
The director's screenplay of War and Peace On 3 April 1961, Vladimir Turin, the director-general of the Mos film studios, sent Further a letter requesting to approve the adaptation of a script for a film in three parts based on War and Peace, as well as to allocate 150,000 Soviet rubles in funds. On 5 May the Minister replied, authorizing to begin writing the scenario and granting R30,000.
Bondarchuk hired Vasily Solomon, a playwright, as his assistant for composing the script. The two later changed the earlier premise and decided to make four parts instead of three.
They chose to downplay or exclude completely several of Tolstoy's plot lines and themes, in order not to make the film too cumbersome: the episodes concerning Nikolai Rostov and Maria Bolkonskaya were reduced, and Anatole Keratin received a slightly better treatment. The author's views on philosophy and history were substantially redacted.
The Mos film directorate approved the finished script on 27 February 1962. On 20 March, in a plenum in the Ministry of Culture attended by Turin and the State Committee for Cinematography's deputy chairman Bamako, Further approved the scenario and requested all relevant agencies to assist the producers, including the Ministry of Defense, which was deemed central in providing support for the project.
The producers appointed three military advisers: Army General Vladimir Curator became the film's chief consultant, and Army General Marian Poor assisted as well; Lieutenant General Nikolai Sikorsky was brought as an expert on cavalry. The Soviet Army would supply thousands of soldiers as extras during the filming.
More than forty museums contributed historical artifacts, such as chandeliers, furniture and cutlery, to create an authentic impression of the early 19th-century Russia. Thousands of costumes were sewn, mainly military uniform of the sorts worn in the Napoleonic Wars, including 11,000 shakes.
Sixty obsolete cannons were cast and 120 wagons and carts constructed for the production. Anticipating the need for cavalry, line producer Nikolai Ivanov and General Tsiolkovsky began seeking appropriate horses.
While the cavalry formations of the Army were long abolished, several units in the Transcaucasia Military District and the Turkestan Military District retained horse-drawn mountain artillery. In addition to those, the Ministry of Agriculture gave away nine hundred horses and the Moscow City Police organized a detachment from its mounted regiment.
The producers also needed to arrange hounds for the wolf hunting at the Rostov estate. Sixteen such were obtained from individual private owners, but the dogs had no experience in hunting and were hard to handle.
However, in spring 1962, shortly before the commencing of principal photography, Strizhenov changed his mind after being accepted into the ensemble of the Moscow Art Theater. Further spoke with the actor, but failed to convince him.
The director then tried to enlist Innocent Smoktunovsky, who was supposed to star in Gregory Kozintsev's Hamlet. After deliberations, Smoktunovsky accepted Bondarchuk's offer, but Kozintsev used his influence in the Ministry and received his actor back.
He first arrived at the set in mid-December 1962, three months after filming began. Bondarchuk envisaged the character of Pierre Bezukhov as having great physical strength, in accordance with his description by Tolstoy.
Therefore, he had offered the role to Olympic weightlifter Yury Vlasic, and even rehearsed with him. Vlasic soon gave it up, telling the director that he had no acting skills.
During the making of the third and fourth part in the series, a journalist named Yury Devochkin, who resembled the director, substituted him in many of the scenes. Dishonor was the highest-paid member of the cast, and received R22,228 for portraying Bolkonsky.
Bondarchuk earned R21,679 for directing and 20,100 for depicting Pierre. The hussar officer's plissé worn by actor Nikolai Rybnikov, who portrayed DenisovBefore beginning principal photography, the producers resolved to shoot the picture with 70-mm.
Though they considered purchasing it from Kodak or from OREO in the German Democratic Republic, they at last decided to use Soviet-made film stock manufactured in the Shasta Chemical Plant, both because of financial shortcomings and for considerations of national pride. Director of photography Anatolia Trotsky recalled that the Shasta film was “of horrible quality” and that he would often photograph a sequence only to discover the film was defective.
Their 31-year-old assistant Trotsky, who had made only one film previously, was appointed in their stead. The operators pioneered photographic techniques which had never before been used in Soviet cinema.
Aerial lifts with cameras were hoisted over sets to create “a cannonball view”. When filming Natasha's first ball, an operator with a hand-held camera circled between the dancing extras on roller skates.
The crowd scenes were shot using cranes and helicopters. Another new feature was the sound technicians' use of a six-channel audio recording system.
A costume used during the filming 1 December, Bondarchuk and the production team, with 150 wagons of equipment, traveled to Mukachevo in the Zakarpattia Oblast. Bondarchuk revised his plans and decided to film in Zakarpattia 231 scenes that were supposed to be made elsewhere, while waiting for the weather to improve.
The Battle of Ransom episode and its related parts were filmed in the snow, and involved 2,500 Soviet soldiers, allocated as extras, who wore French uniforms and 500 in Russian ones. When conditions enabled it, 3,000 soldiers from the Carpathian Military District re-created the Battle of Schöngrabern near the village of Kushtanovytsia.
The Battle of Austerlitz was filmed in the vicinity of Saliva. As the budget was exceeded due to the weather and film stock problems, Bondarchuk had to refrain from filming several battle sequences.
On 20 July, the producers went on another expedition, to Dorogobuzh, in order to film the Battle of Borodin and the related parts of the plot. Photography could not be carried out in Borodin itself, mainly because of the many memorials located there.
The troops were supposed to return to their bases after thirteen days, but eventually remained for three months. 23 tons of gunpowder, handled by 120 sappers, and 40,000 liters of kerosene were used for the pyrotechnics, as well as 10,000 smoke grenades.
On 4 November, the session ended and Bondarchuk went back to Moscow. From the end of December to mid-June 1964, the crew worked in Mos film's studios.
Most notably, Natasha's debutante ball was photographed there, with five hundred extras. On 15 June, the production team went to Leningrad, where shooting took place in the Hermitage Museum, the Summer Garden, the Peter and Paul Fortress and in Vasilyevsky Island.
Upon his return to the studio on 7 July, Bondarchuk was abruptly instructed by his superiors to abandon all other work and focus on preparing the first two parts for the 1965 Moscow Film Festival, contrary to all former designs and while they were far from finished. During the same month, he suffered a major cardiac arrest and was clinically dead for a short while.
His first words after regaining consciousness were: “If I die, let Asimov finish it”. In spite of the tight schedule, Andrei Bolkonsky and Natasha Rostov were completed and submitted to Mos film's directorate on 30 June 1965, less than a week before the festival.
The two had their world premiere on 19 July 1965, in the Kremlin Palace of Congresses. During July, Bondarchuk suffered another heart attack: this time, he was clinically dead for four minutes.
The white wall of light seen by Bolkonsky before his death was inspired by the director's experience. The work on the remaining episodes of parts 3 and 4 resumed on 9 August.
During the next months, the crew filmed in Mohawk, Alien and Zvenigorod. The final plot line to be shot was the Fire of Moscow ; filming began on 17 October 1966.
For four months prior to that, a plywood set was built in the village of Teryayevo, next to the Joseph-Volokolamsk Monastery. The entire construction, doused with diesel fuel, was burned to the ground as five fire engines stood nearby.
On 28 December, the edited third film was approved by the studio. Work on the fourth and final one continued until early August 1967.
In 1962, officials in the Ministry of Culture estimated War and Peace would cost some 4 million rubles, not including support from the Army. In comparison, the most expensive Soviet film until then, the 1952 The Unforgettable Year 1919, cost R1.093 million in prices adjusted to the .
War and Peace remains the costliest picture to be made in the USSR. On 20 March 1962, Further set a preliminary budget of R1.395 million.
On 21 May 1963, the Ministry approved a plan for a series in four parts with a budget of R8,165,200. On 25 August 1964, the State Committee for Cinematography issued a directive revisiting the terms, authorizing to spend R8.5 million, of which R2.51 million were to cover the expenses of the Ministry of Defense.
Towards the end of post-production, the total cost forecast estimated was R8,083,412. However, in August 1967, with all work completed, “the last debit and credit entries were written in the books.
According to its financial statements, the film consumed 8,291,712 rubles.” This was equal to $9,213,013 by the 1967 exchange rate, or too approximately.
Various estimates of the series' budget circulated in the international press. The New York Times reported it was “the most expensive film ever made... Russians say cost $100 million”.
The New York Times estimated this figure to be equivalent to $700 million upon adjustment for inflation to 2007 levels, a claim it reiterated in 2019. After its release in the United Kingdom in 1969, The Annual Register announced it “reputedly” cost £40 million ($96 million).
The 1979 Guinness Book of World Records published a similar number, claiming War and Peace was “the most expensive film ever made” based on that “the total cost has been officially stated to be more than $96 million.” The distribution (along with the displaying and later preserving) of such a massive piece of work posed difficulties.
Already the whopping 20 canisters of film reels made transportation a sizable hassle. Andrei Bolkonsky was screened in two consecutive parts, released in a total of 2,805 copies in March 1966.
In the fifteen months afterwards, the first sold 58.3 million tickets in the USSR, and 58 million of the viewers remained through the intermission. Thus, Bolkonsky became the most successful film of the year.
Respectively, its two parts are also the 26th and 27th most watched from among all pictures ever made in the Soviet Union. Natasha Rostov, which opened in July with 1,405 copies disseminated, performed less well and attracted 36.2 million viewers in the same time period, reaching the third place in the 1966 box office, although it would have been ninth if counted in 1967.
Admission for the two final parts deteriorated further: 1812, with 1,407 copies released, had 21 million admissions and Pierre Bezukhov sold merely 19.8 million tickets; they made it to the 13th and 14th place at the 1967 box office. Russian film critic Sergei Kudryavtsev assessed the series' domestic returns were “probably in the range” of R58 million, while Yaakov assumed each ticket cost an average price of 25 kopecks.
With a total of some 135 million tickets sold, War and Peace was considered a resounding commercial success at the time. The series was screened in 117 countries around the world, including Spain, Japan, West Germany, Denmark, Belgium, Egypt, and Argentina.
In East Germany, the state-owned DEFY studio produced a slightly shorter edition of the series, dubbed to German, which ran 409 minutes and maintained the four-part order of the original. Among others, it featured Angelica Compose, who voiced Lisa Bolkonskaya.
It attracted 2,225,649 viewers in the German Democratic Republic. In West Germany, a much shorter version was released, totaling 337 minutes.
In the People's Republic of Poland, it sold over 5,000,000 tickets in 1967. Walter Read Jr. 's company Continental Distributors purchased the U.S. rights of War and Peace for $1.5 million.
Read's associates shortened the American version of the film by an hour, and added English-language dubbing. This edition was directed by Lee Diesel of Titan Productions and narrated by Norman Rose.
On 23 January 1969, Diesel's edition opened in London's Curium cinema. The US television network ABC broadcast War and Peace over four days, 12–15 August 1972.
In July 1965, War and Peace was awarded the Grand Prix at the 4th Moscow International Film Festival together with the Hungarian entry Twenty Hours. Ludwig Savelyeva was presented with an honorary diploma.
The readers of Sovetskii Era, the official publication of the State Committee for Cinematography, chose Savelyeva and Vyacheslav Dishonor for the best actress and actor of 1966, in recognition of their appearance in the picture. In the same year, War and Peace also received the Million Pearl Award of the Road Association of Film Viewers in Japan.
Soviet film critic Costilla Nureyev wrote that War and Peace was “the most ambitious and monumental adaptation of the greatest work of Russian literature set out to convey in tremendous scope the historical conception of Leo Tolstoy, his extraordinarily vivid and profound depiction of humanity.” In a second review, he added: “the desire for ever greater depth of penetration into the human character, of every aspect of it led to Sergei Bondarchuk's adaptation of Tolstoy.
Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung reviewer Brigitte Jeremiah stated the film presented history “with great meticulousness and choreographic quality . This is a conservative, romantic or perhaps even classical historical film .
But it strives for authenticity, and is therefore incomparably better than Vigor's adaptation.” French critic Georges Soul commented: “more than in the sheer scale of the battle scenes”, the film's “merit lies in its sense of the Russian landscape”, to continue: “Though perhaps an impressive example of film -making on large scale,” it was “ponderous by any standard” and “tediously faithful” to the novel, with “none of its narrative flair or spirit .
Occasional bravura or touching episodes are not adequate for the dogged pedantry.” Claude Mauriac wrote in Le Figaro litterers that “we have already seen many Soviet films .
Peter Bowie noted that Bondarchuk brought to his adaptation “the epic sweep that had eluded King Vigor.” Joseph Ellis of Noonday agreed that the film was “superior as drama and spectacle.
The Time magazine reviewer wrote that the film “escapes greatness, except in cost and length the movie is awesome in war and pusillanimous in peace.” Pierre and Andrei are only shallow, literal representations of Tolstoy's characters .
Roger Ebert commented that it was “a magnificently unique film . Bondarchuk, however, is able to balance the spectacular, the human, and the intellectual.
Ian Aiken regarded War and Peace as “one of the most important” films produced during the 1964–68 transition from the Khrushchev Thaw to the Brezhnev Stagnation. In that period, the liberal atmosphere of the Thaw was still felt, although it was being marginalized as Soviet cinema became more restrained.
The author believed the film's “chief importance” laid in its demonstration of how “the Eurasian model of intensive totality can be given a successful modernist inflection.” He also noted that while it was an example of critical realism rather than socialist realism and had modernist characteristics, War and Peace was “politically innocuous enough” to be celebrated by the Brezhnev government as a great achievement.
David C. Gillespie noted orthodox Soviet messages in the film : “There are ideological touches . Russian and Austrian soldiers (but not their officers) show proletarian-like solidarity .
There is no mention in the film of Pierre's early dalliance with freemasonry, as if contact with a foreign creed might erode some of his Russians.” In 1986, Bondarchuk was requested to prepare War and Peace for a television broadcast.
Copy of the series, which was filmed in parallel to the main version and had a 4:3 aspect ratio, rather than the 70-mm. 2.20:1, was submitted, after being adapted by a team headed by Trotsky.
Reels were damaged beyond repair, the studio used the 1988 4:3 version and the original soundtrack to make a DVD edition, in a process that cost $80,000. Which elements were being used is unclear, but the restoration would, claimed Shakhnazarov, probably be finished by the end of 2016.
The completed restoration was first shown at the Film Society of Lincoln Center in New York City, then in Los Angeles and other major cities. The Criterion Collection released the restoration onto 3-disc DVD and 2-disc Blu-ray sets on 25 June 2019.
The series has been shown once and once only as a single film (with a central break of 30 minutes as a comfort break) split into two 4-hour sections on British TV broadcast on BBC2 on Christmas Day 1976. Wikimedia Commons has media related to War and Peace (1967 film).
^ The 1979 Guinness Book of World Records and other sources state that “the re-creation of the Battle of Borodin involved 120,000 Red Army extras.” This figure is contrasted by several contemporary sources: the New York Times journalist Theodore Shaped reported that “12,000 soldiers and 800 horses” took part.
The figure used here is cited by Yaakov, who had access to the production records. René Drummer of Die Wait was told 135 million West German Mark ($33.8 million) were spent making them, while Der Spiegel stated it cost 240 million West German Mark ($60.2 million).
Opt gosudarstvennogo upravleniya iskusstvom: Deyatelnost Perdomo otechestvennogo Ministers culture. ^ “Central Bank of Russia: Ruble to US Dollar Exchange Rate History”.
^ “Pacific Exchange: Foreign Currency Units per 1 U.S. Dollar, 1948–2011” (PDF). (subscription required) ^ Christ, Judith (29 April 1968).
“A Peerless War and Peace Film Is Restored to Its Former Glory”. “Soviet Film Version of War and Peace is Given a Gala New York Premiere”.
“One of film's greatest epics is a 7-hour adaptation of War and Peace. European Film Theory and Cinema: A Critical Introduction.
The Foreign Film Renaissance on American Screens, 1946–1973. Polnisch-deutsche Theaterbeziehungen sat them Beaten Weltering.
The Most Important Art: Soviet and Eastern European Film After 1945. 70 Years of the Oscar: The Official History of the Academy Awards.