Two versions of the Apollo Command/Service Module (CSM) spacecraft were developed: Block I intended for preliminary low Earth orbit testing, and Block II which was designed for the lunar landing. The second seat pilot was given secondary responsibility for celestial navigation to keep the CSM's guidance computer accurately calibrated with the spacecraft's true position, and the third seat pilot served as a flight engineer, monitoring the health of the spacecraft systems.
But when delays prevented the LM from being ready in time for its first flight in December 1968, Norman's mission was changed to the first lunar orbital flight of the CSM on Apollo 8. This mission was unsuccessful, due to a Service Module electrical system failure caused by an oxygen tank explosion.
Harrison Schmitt (seated, center) became NASA's first scientist astronaut to fly in space. In June 1965, NASA named a group of five scientist astronauts, the first group qualified by doctorate degrees rather than test or military fighter pilot experience. Geologist Harrison H. “Jack” Schmitt participated heavily in the geological training of the lunar landing astronauts, as well as assisting in the analysis of returned samples and the preparation of mission reports.
All crewed lunar landings took place between July 1969 and December 1972 as part of the Apollo program. Alan Shepard was the oldest person to walk on the Moon, at age 47 years and 80 days.
Armstrong took the TV camera off the lunar module and mounted it to a tripod. They had some trouble planting the American flag into the lunar soil, but were able to secure it into the surface.
Aldrin positioned himself in front of a video camera and began experimenting with different locomotion techniques on the surface. During these experiments, Armstrong and Aldrin received a phone call from President Nixon, congratulating them for the successful landing.
After setting up a couple of experiments with Armstrong, Aldrin went to work hammering a tube into the lunar surface to obtain a core sample. Aldrin's EVA ended when they loaded the lunar samples into the spacecraft and tossed out unneeded items, just before sealing the hatch.
Armstrong performed the majority of the photography on the surface, which is why there are only five photos of him on the Moon. Soon after piloting the LM Falcon to a landing at Hadley Rifle, Scott accomplished the only stand-up EVA through the lander's top hatch, using it as a high place from which to refine the geology traverses he and Irwin would undertake during the following days.
After the final traverse, back outside the LM, Scott performed a demonstration of Galileo's theory that all objects fall at the same rate in vacuum by dropping a hammer and a feather for the television camera. As the LRC's first passenger, he had an often rough ride as Scott swerved to avoid craters.
It was Irwin who, during the second EVA, first spotted the Genesis Rock and aided Scott in collecting this bit of the early lunar crust. A man of deep Christian religious faith, Irwin quoted from Psalms while on the lunar surface and later became an evangelist.
Besides the 12 people who have walked on the Moon, 12 more have flown to within 0.001 lunar distance of its surface. Jim Lovell, John Young, and Eugene Hernán are the only three people to have flown to the Moon twice.
Young and Hernán each set foot on it during their respective second lunar missions, while Lovell is the only person to have flown to the Moon twice without landing. During Hernán's first lunar mission on Apollo 10, he tied the present record set by Bill Andes on Apollo 8 as the youngest person to fly to the Moon.
The oldest person to fly to the Moon was Alan Shepard, who walked on its surface during the Apollo 14 mission. Jim Lovell and Fred Raise were scheduled to walk on the Moon during the Apollo 13 mission, but the lunar landing was aborted following a major malfunction en route to the Moon.
Because of Apollo 13's free-return trajectory, Lovell, Swinger and Raise flew higher above the Moon's 180° meridian (opposite Earth) than anyone else has flown (254 km/158 mi). Coincidentally, due to the Moon's distance from Earth at the time, they simultaneously set the present record for humans' greatest distance from Earth, reaching an altitude of 400,171 km (248,655 mi) above sea level at 0:21 UTC on 15 April 1970.
Image Name Born Died Age Mission Military service Notes 1 Frank Norman (1928-03-14) March 14, 1928 (age 92)40 Apollo 8 December 21–27, 1968Air Force2 Jim Lovell (1928-03-25) March 25, 1928 (age 92)40Apollo 8 December 21–27, 1968 Apollo 13 April 11–17, 1970NavyIntended to land on Apollo 13; only person to fly to the Moon twice without landing. 5 Michael Collins (1930-10-31) October 31, 1930 (age 90)38 Apollo 11 July 16–24, 1969Air Force6 Dick Gordon (1929-10-05)October 5, 1929November 6, 2017(2017-11-06) (aged 88)40 Apollo 12 November 14–24, 1969NavyTrained to land, slated for Apollo 18 (canceled) .7 Jack Swinger (1931-08-30)August 30, 1931December 27, 1982(1982-12-27) (aged 51)38Apollo 13 April 11–17, 1970Air Force8 Fred Raise (1933-11-14) November 14, 1933 (age 87)36Apollo 13 April 11–17, 1970 Marines, Air ForceIntended to land; later trained to land and slated to command Apollo 19 (canceled) ; flew the Space Shuttle on approach / landing tests.
Despite some cruel twists that saw his reputation tarnished, arguably directly leading to his death at a tragically young age in 2009, as a performer, he had no peers. Whatever the truth may be, he has made a lasting impression as an expression of boundless love that has reached millions.
His amazing talent aside, it's his natural charisma which made him a true star. The film starts out with a poignant, live rendition of the heartfelt humanitarian ballad “Man in the Mirror”.
We also get a zoom in of what appears to be a dressing room filled with awards, sequined gloves and tons of Michael Jackson memorabilia as the song “Music and Me” by an adolescent Michael plays in the background. Headed by Brandon Quinton Adams, “BADDER” is a tongue-in-cheek, lighthearted “kid” version of “BAD” which stars some amazingly talented children actors and dancers recreating one of Michael's best known videos.
It is an original part of the Moon Walker film and leads into “Speed Demon”. “Speed Demon” is a fabulous video which takes advantage of the Academy-Award winning animation technique of claymation.
The song tells of Michael's struggle through the years with the media and his inner strength to overcome cynical critics. There is great animation in this video filled with a tribute to Liz Taylor, an amusement park and some of Michael's real life pets.
He finds out about an evil man named Frankie Video, who likes to be referred to as “Mr. Big”, played by Joe Pesci who has a liking for tarantulas and plans on world domination by getting kids hooked on drugs. After Mr. Big kidnaps Michael's friends, Michael pits himself against this man by turning into a Lamborgini-type silver car, a laser shooting robot and eventually a spaceship, which only after killing the forces of evil, vanishes into the night sky.
He returns to belt out an amazing hard-rock version of the Beatles classic “Come Together” and reassures his friends that he is back and better than ever. Or if you're Michael Jacksons the biggest fan, like me, you've seen this film a million times and love it just as much as ever.
Michael Jackson, Joe Pesci, Sean Lennon, Kellie Parker While other singers put on a bogus sex symbol image, bleach their hair, wear revealing clothes and sing disposable music, Michael stays himself.