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Contents

- 1. -distribution
- 2. Corresponding
- 3. Bankruptcy
- 4. Applications
- 5. Approximately
- 6. Confidence
- 7. Statistical
- 8. Constructing

(a) it allows researchers to calculate the probability of a score occurring within a standard normal distribution; (b) and enables us to compare two scores that are from different samples (which may have different means and standard deviations). The value of the z -score tells you how many standard deviations you are away from the mean.

A positive z -score indicates the raw score is higher than the mean average. A negative z -score reveals the raw score is below the mean average.

Fig 3 illustrates the important features of any standard normal distribution (SND). The SND (i.e. z -distribution) is always the same shape as the raw score distribution.

The SND allows researchers to calculate the probability of randomly obtaining a score from the distribution (i.e. sample). For example, there is a 68% probability of randomly selecting a score between -1 and +1 standard deviations from the mean (see Fig.

Proportion of a standard normal distribution (SND) in percentages. The probability of randomly selecting a score between -1.96 and +1.96 standard deviations from the mean is 95% (see Fig.

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The formula for calculating a z -score in a sample into a raw score is given below: As the formula shows, the z -score and standard deviation are multiplied together, and this figure is added to the mean.

Check your answer makes sense: If we have a negative z -score the corresponding raw score should be less than the mean, and a positive z -score must correspond to a raw score higher than the mean. Next, you mush calculate the standard deviation of the sample by using the STD EV. S formula.

Z -scores may be positive or negative, with a positive value indicating the score is above the mean and a negative score indicating it is below the mean. In finance, Z -scores are measures of an observation's variability and can be used by traders to help determine market volatility.

A Z -score can reveal to a trader if a value is typical for a specified data set or if it is atypical. Z -scores reveal to statisticians and traders whether a score is typical for a specified data set or if it is atypical.

Edward Altman, a professor at New York University, developed and introduced the Z -score formula in the late 1960s as a solution to the time-consuming and somewhat confusing process investors had to undergo to determine how close to bankruptcy a company was. In reality, the Z -score formula that Altman developed actually ended up providing investors with an idea of the overall financial health of a company. A Z -score is the output of a credit-strength test that helps gauge the likelihood of bankruptcy for a publicly traded company.

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The Z -score is based on five key financial ratios that can be found and calculated from a company's annual 10-K report. Typically, a score below 1.8 indicates that a company is likely heading for bankruptcy.

Standard deviation is essentially a reflection of the amount of variability within a given data set. Standard deviation is calculated by first determining the difference between each data point and the mean.

The Z -score, by contrast, is the number of standard deviations a given data point lies from the mean. Since companies in trouble may sometimes misrepresent or cover up their financials, the Z -score is only as accurate as the data that goes into it.

Regardless of their actual financial health, these companies will score low. These events can change the final score and may falsely suggest a company is on the brink of bankruptcy.

), then dividing the difference by the population standard deviation: The z -score has numerous applications and can be used to perform a z -test, calculate prediction intervals, process control applications, comparison of scores on different scales, and more.

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Although there are a number of types of z -tables, the right-tail z -table is commonly what is meant when a z -table is referenced. The confidence interval is the range of values that you expect your estimate to fall between a certain percentage of the time if you run your experiment again or re-sample the population in the same way.

You can calculate confidence intervals for many kinds of statistical estimates, including: These are all point estimates, and don’t give any information about the variation around the number.

Example: Variation around an estimated survey 100 Brits and 100 Americans about their television-watching habits, and find that both groups watch an average of 35 hours of television per week. The point estimate of your confidence interval will be whatever statistical estimate you are making (e.g. population mean, the difference between population means, proportions, variation among groups).

Example: Critical value In the TV-watching survey, there are more than 30 observations and the data follow an approximately normal distribution (bell curve), so we can use the z -distribution for our test statistics. Most statistical software will have a built-in function to calculate your standard deviation, but to find it by hand you can first find your sample variance, then take the square root to get the standard deviation.

Sample variance is defined as the sum of squared differences from the mean, also known as the mean-squared-error (MSE): To find the MSE, subtract your sample mean from each value in the dataset, square the resulting number, and divide that number by n 1 (sample size minus 1).

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The standard deviation of your estimate (s) is equal to the square root of the sample variance/sample error (s 2): Taking the square root of the variance gives us a sample standard deviation (s) of: 10 for the GB estimate.

Compare your paper with over 60 billion web pages and 30 million publications. Normally-distributed data forms a bell shape when plotted on a graph, with the sample mean in the middle and the rest of the data distributed fairly evenly on either side of the mean.

The confidence interval for data which follows a standard normal distribution is: In real life, you never know the true values for the population (unless you can do a complete census).

Example: Calculating the confidence interval In the survey of Americans’ and Brits’ television watching habits, we can use the sample mean, sample standard deviation, and sample size in place of the population mean, population standard deviation, and population size. To calculate the 95% confidence interval, we can simply plug the values into the formula.

To calculate a confidence interval around the mean of data that is not normally distributed, you have two choices: You just have to remember to do the reverse transformation on your data when you calculate the upper and lower bounds of the confidence interval.

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Example: Reporting a confidence interval“We found that both the US and Great Britain averaged 35 hours of television watched per week, although there was more variation in the estimate for Great Britain (95% CI = 33.04, 36.96) than for the US (95% CI = 34.02, 35.98).” One place that confidence intervals are frequently used is in graphs. When showing the differences between groups, or plotting a linear regression, researchers will often include the confidence interval to give a visual representation of the variation around the estimate.

Example: Confidence interval in a Grafton may decide to plot the point estimates of the mean number of hours of television watched in the USA and Great Britain, with the 95% confidence interval around the mean. The confidence interval cannot tell you how likely it is that you found the true value of your statistical estimate because it is based on a sample, not on the whole population.

The confidence interval only tells you what range of values you can expect to find if you re-do you're sampling or run your experiment again in the exact same way. The more accurate your sampling plan, or the more realistic your experiment, the greater the chance that your confidence interval includes the true value of your estimate.

But this accuracy is determined by your research methods, not by the statistics you do after you have collected the data! The confidence level is the percentage of times you expect to get close to the same estimate if you run your experiment again or resample the population in the same way.

For example, if you are estimating a 95% confidence interval around the mean proportion of female babies born every year based on a random sample of babies, you might find an upper bound of 0.56 and a lower bound of 0.48. The predicted mean and distribution of your estimate are generated by the null hypothesis of the statistical test you are using.

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It describes how far from the mean of the distribution you have to go to cover a certain amount of the total variation in the data (i.e. 90%, 95%, 99%). If you are constructing a 95% confidence interval and are using a threshold of statistical significance of p = 0.05, then your critical value will be identical in both cases.

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