Spectral lines of xenon Other propertiesNatural occurrence primordial Crystal structure face-centered cubic (FCC) Speed of sound gas: 178 m·s 1 liquid: 1090 m/thermal conductivity 5.65×10 3 W/(m·K) Magnetic ordering diamagnetic Magnetic susceptibility 43.9·10 6 cm 3 /MOL (298 K) CAS Number 7440-63-3 History Discovery and first isolation William Ramsay and Morris Travels (1898)Main isotopes of xenon Category: Xenon | references Xenon was discovered in England by the Scottish chemist William Ramsay and English chemist Morris Travels in September 1898, shortly after their discovery of the elements krypton and neon.
They found xenon in the residue left over from evaporating components of liquid air. Ramsay suggested the name xenon for this gas from the Greek word xenon, neuter singular form of xenon, meaning 'foreign(er)', 'strange(r)', or 'guest'.
In 1902, Ramsay estimated the proportion of xenon in the Earth's atmosphere to be one part in 20 million. In 1939, American physician Albert R. Behave Jr. began exploring the causes of “drunkenness” in deep-sea divers.
He tested the effects of varying the breathing mixtures on his subjects, and discovered that this caused the divers to perceive a change in depth. From his results, he deduced that xenon gas could serve as an anesthetic.
Although Russian toxicologist Nikolai V. Lazaro apparently studied xenon anesthesia in 1941, the first published report confirming xenon anesthesia was in 1946 by American medical researcher John H. Lawrence, who experimented on mice. Xenon was first used as a surgical anesthetic in 1951 by American anesthesiologist Stuart C. Cullen, who successfully used it with two patients.
An acrylic cube specially prepared for element collectors containing liquefied xenon In November 1989, IBM scientists demonstrated a technology capable of manipulating individual atoms. The program, called IBM in atoms, used a scanning tunneling microscope to arrange 35 individual xenon atoms on a substrate of chilled crystal of nickel to spell out the three letter company initialism.
It was the first time atoms had been precisely positioned on a flat surface. A layer of solid xenon floating on top of liquid xenon inside a high voltage apparatus. Liquid (featureless) and crystalline solid Xe nanoparticles produced by implanting Xe + ions into aluminum at room temperature.
Xenon has atomic number 54; that is, its nucleus contains 54 protons. At standard temperature and pressure, pure xenon gas has a density of 5.761 kg/m 3, about 4.5 times the density of the Earth's atmosphere at sea level, 1.217 kg/m 3.
As a liquid, xenon has a density of up to 3.100 g/mL, with the density maximum occurring at the triple point. Liquid xenon has a high polarizability due to its large atomic volume, and thus is an excellent solvent.
It can dissolve hydrocarbons, biological molecules, and even water. Under the same conditions, the density of solid xenon, 3.640 g/cm 3, is greater than the average density of granite, 2.75 g/cm 3.
Under gigapascals of pressure, xenon forms a metallic phase. Solid xenon changes from face-centered cubic (FCC) to hexagonal close packed (HCP) crystal phase under pressure and begins to turn metallic at about 140 GPA, with no noticeable volume change in the HCP phase.
When metallized, xenon appears sky blue because it absorbs red light and transmits other visible frequencies. Such behavior is unusual for a metal and is explained by the relatively small width of the electron bands in that state.
Liquid or solid xenon nanoparticles can be formed at room temperature by implanting Xe + ions into a solid matrix. This results in compression of the implanted Xe to pressures that may be sufficient for its liquefaction or solidification.
Xenon is a member of the zero- valence elements that are called noble or inert gases. It is inert to most common chemical reactions (such as combustion, for example) because the outer valence shell contains eight electrons.
This produces a stable, minimum energy configuration in which the outer electrons are tightly bound. Xenon is obtained commercially as a by-product of the separation of air into oxygen and nitrogen.
After this separation, generally performed by fractional distillation in a double-column plant, the liquid oxygen produced will contain small quantities of krypton and xenon. By additional fractional distillation, the liquid oxygen may be enriched to contain 0.1–0.2% of a krypton/ xenon mixture, which is extracted either by absorption onto silica gel or by distillation.
Within the Solar System, the nucleon fraction of xenon is 1.56 × 10 8, for an abundance of approximately one part in 630 thousand of the total mass. Xenon is relatively rare in the Sun's atmosphere, on Earth, and in asteroids and comets.
(Otherwise, xenon would not have been trapped in the planetesimal ices.) The problem of the low terrestrial xenon may be explained by covalent bonding of xenon to oxygen within quartz, reducing the out gassing of xenon into the atmosphere.
The isotopes 126 Xe and 134 Xe are predicted by theory to undergo double beta decay, but this has never been observed, so they are considered stable. In addition, more than 40 unstable isotopes that have been studied.
The longest lived of these isotopes are the primordial 124 Xe, which undergoes double electron capture with a half-life of 1.8 × 10 22 yrs, and 136 Xe, which undergoes double beta decay with a half-life of 2.11 × 10 21 yrs. 129 Xe is produced by beta decay of 129 I, which has a half-life of 16 million years. Because a 129 Xe nucleus has a spin of 1/2, and therefore a zero electricquadrupole moment, the 129 Xe nucleus does not experience any quadrupole interactions during collisions with other atoms, and the hyperpolarization persists for long periods even after the engendering light and vapor have been removed.
Spin polarization of 129 Xe can persist from several seconds for xenon atoms dissolved in blood to several hours in the gas phase and several days in deeply frozen solid xenon. In contrast, 131 Xe has a nuclear spin value of 3 2 and a nonzero quadrupole moment, and has t 1 relaxation times in the millisecond and second ranges.
Some radioactive isotopes of xenon (for example, 133 Xe and 135 Xe) are produced by neutron irradiation of fissionable material within nuclear reactors. 135 Xe is of considerable significance in the operation of nuclear fission reactors.
135 Xe has a huge cross-section for thermal neutrons, 2.6×10 6 barns, and operates as a neutron absorber or poison that can slow or stop the chain reaction after a period of operation. This was discovered in the earliest nuclear reactors built by the American Manhattan Project for plutonium production.
However, the designers had made provisions in the design to increase the reactor's reactivity (the number of neutrons per fission that go on to fission other atoms of nuclear fuel). 135 Xe reactor poisoning was a major factor in the .
A shutdown or decrease of power of a reactor can result in buildup of 135 Xe, with reactor operation going into a condition known as the iodine pit. Under adverse conditions, relatively high concentrations of radioactive xenon isotopes may emanate from cracked fuel rods, or fashioning of uranium in cooling water.
Because the half-life of 129 I is comparatively short on a cosmological timescale (16 million years), this demonstrated that only a short time had passed between the supernova and the time the meteorites had solidified and trapped the 129 I. These two events (supernova and solidification of gas cloud) were inferred to have happened during the early history of the Solar System, because the 129 I isotope was likely generated shortly before the Solar System was formed, seeding the solar gas cloud with isotopes from a second source.
This supernova source may also have caused collapse of the solar gas cloud. Similarly, xenon isotopic ratios such as 129 Xe/ 130 Xe and 136 Xe/ 130 Xe are a powerful tool for understanding planetary differentiation and early out gassing.
For example, the atmosphere of Mars shows a xenon abundance similar to that of Earth (0.08 parts per million ) but Mars shows a greater abundance of 129 Xe than the Earth or the Sun. Since this isotope is generated by radioactive decay, the result may indicate that Mars lost most of its primordial atmosphere, possibly within the first 100 million years after the planet was formed.
In another example, excess 129 Xe found in carbon dioxide well gases from New Mexico is believed to be from the decay of mantle -derived gases from soon after Earth's formation. After Neil Bartlett's discovery in 1962 that xenon can form chemical compounds, many xenon compounds have been discovered and described.
Almost all known xenon compounds contain the electronegative atoms fluorine or oxygen. The chemistry of xenon in each oxidation state is analogous to that of the neighboring element iodine in the immediately lower oxidation state.
These are the starting points for the synthesis of almost all xenon compounds. The solid, crystalline fluoride Ref 2 is formed when a mixture of fluorine and xenon gases is exposed to ultraviolet light.
The ultraviolet component of ordinary daylight is sufficient. Long-term heating of Ref 2 at high temperatures under an NIF 2 catalyst yields Ref 6.
The xenon fluorides behave as both fluoride acceptors and fluoride donors, forming salts that contain such cations as Ref + and Xe 2 F + 3, and anions such as Ref 5, Ref 7, and Ref 2 8. The green, paramagnetic Xe + 2 is formed by the reduction of Ref 2 by xenon gas.
Ref 2 also forms coordination complexes with transition metal ions. Whereas the xenon fluorides are well characterized, except chloride ECL 2 and ECL 4, the other halves are not known.
Xenon chloride, formed by the high-frequency irradiation of a mixture of xenon, fluorine, and silicon or carbon tetrachloride, is reported to be an endothermic, colorless, crystalline compound that decomposes into the elements at 80 °C. However, ECL 2 may be merely a van der Waals molecule of weakly bound Xe atoms and Cl 2 molecules and not a real compound.
Theoretical calculations indicate that the linear molecule ECL 2 is less stable than the van der Waals complex. Xenon tetrachloride is more unstable that can't synthesized by chemical reaction. It was created by radioactive 129 ICL 4 decay.
Xenon does not react with oxygen directly; the trioxide is formed by the hydrolysis of Ref 6 : Ref 6 + 3 H 2 O Geo 3 + 6 HF Geo 3 is weakly acidic, dissolving in alkali to form unstable Senate salts containing the HEO 4 anions.
Ba 2 Geo 6 + 2 H 2 SO 4 2 Base 4 + 2 H 2 O + Geo 4 To prevent decomposition, the xenon tetroxide thus formed is quickly cooled into a pale-yellow solid. It explodes above 35.9 °C into xenon and oxygen gas, but is otherwise stable.
Much xenon fluorides are known, including EOF 2, EOF 4, Geo 2 F 2, and Geo 3 F 2. EOF 2 is formed by reacting OF 2 with xenon gas at low temperatures.
EOF 4 is formed by the partial hydrolysis of Ref 6, or the reaction of Ref 6 with sodium permeate, Na 4 Geo 6. The latter reaction also produces a small amount of Geo 3 F 2.
EOF 4 reacts with CSF to form the EOF 5 anions, while EOF 3 reacts with the alkali metal fluorides OF, RBF and CSF to form the EOF 4 anions. Xenon can be directly bonded to a less electronegative element than fluorine or oxygen, particularly carbon.
Numerous such compounds have been characterized, including: Other compounds containing xenon bonded to a less electronegative element include F–Xe–N(SO 2 F) 2 and F–Xe–BF 2.
The latter is synthesized from Doxygen tetrafluoroborate, O 2 BF 4, at 100 °C. An unusual ion containing xenon is the tetraxenonogold(II) cation, Aux 2+ 4, which contains Xe–Au bonds.
This ion occurs in the compound Aux 4 (Sb 2 F 11) 2, and is remarkable in having direct chemical bonds between two notoriously unreactive atoms, xenon and gold, with xenon acting as a transition metal ligand. The compound Xe 2 Sb 2 F 11 contains a Xe–Xe bond, the longest element-element bond known (308.71 pm = 3.0871 Å).
In 1995, M. Rosanne and co-workers, scientists at the University of Helsinki in Finland, announced the preparation of xenon dihybrid (He), and later xenon hydride-hydroxide (EOH), hydroxenoacetylene (Hench), and other Xe-containing molecules. In 2008, Khriachtchev et al. reported the preparation of Hexes by the footless of water within a cryogenic xenon matrix.
Reiterated molecules, Held and DXO, have also been produced. Xenon can also form endometrial fullerene compounds, where a xenon atom is trapped inside a fullerene molecule.
The xenon atom trapped in the fullerene can be observed by 129 Xe nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Through the sensitive chemical shift of the xenon atom to its environment, chemical reactions on the fullerene molecule can be analyzed.
These observations are not without caveat, however, because the xenon atom has an electronic influence on the reactivity of the fullerene. When xenon atoms are in the ground energy state, they repel each other and will not form a bond.
When xenon atoms become energized, however, they can form an exciter (excited dimer) until the electrons return to the ground state. This entity is formed because the xenon atom tends to complete the outermost electronic shell by adding an electron from a neighboring xenon atom.
The typical lifetime of a xenon exciter is 1–5 nanoseconds, and the decay releases photons with wavelengths of about 150 and 173 nm. Xenon can also form exciters with other elements, such as the halogens bromine, chlorine, and fluorine.
Although xenon is rare and relatively expensive to extract from the Earth's atmosphere, it has a number of applications. Gas-discharge lamps Space Shuttle Atlantis bathed in xenon lightsome individual cells in a plasma display contain a mixture of xenon and neon ionized with electrodes.
The interaction of this plasma with the electrodes generates ultraviolet photons, which then excite the phosphor coating on the front of the display. Xenon is used as a “starter gas” in high pressure sodium lamps.
It has the lowest thermal conductivity and lowest ionization potential of all the non-radioactive noble gases. As a noble gas, it does not interfere with the chemical reactions occurring in the operating lamp.
The low thermal conductivity minimizes thermal losses in the lamp while in the operating state, and the low ionization potential causes the breakdown voltage of the gas to be relatively low in the cold state, which allows the lamp to be more easily started. Anesthesia Xenon interacts with many receptors and ion channels, and like many theoretically multi-modal inhalation anesthetics, these interactions are likely complementary.
Xenon is a high-affinity glycine-site MDA receptor antagonist. However, xenon is different from certain other MDA receptor antagonists in that it is not neurotoxic, and it inhibits the neurotoxicity of ketamine and nitrous oxide, while actually producing neuroprotective effects.
Unlike ketamine and nitrous oxide, xenon does not stimulate a dopamine efflux in the nucleus incumbent. Like nitrous oxide and cyclopropane, xenon activates the two-pore domain potassium channel TREK-1.
A related channel TASK-3 also implicated in the actions of inhalation anesthetics is insensitive to xenon. Xenon inhibits nicotine acetylcholine 42 receptors which contribute to spinally mediated analgesia.
Xenon is an effective inhibitor of plasma membrane Ca 2+ Atheist. Xenon inhibits Ca 2+ Atheist by binding to a hydrophobic pore within the enzyme and preventing the enzyme from assuming active conformations.
Xenon is a competitive inhibitor of the serotonin 5-HT 3 receptors. While neither anesthetic nor antinociceptive, this reduces anesthesia-emergent nausea and vomiting.
Neuroprotective Xenon induces robust cardio protection and neuroprotective through a variety of mechanisms. Through its influence on Ca 2+, K +, KATE\HIF, and MDA antagonism, xenon is neuroprotective when administered before, during and after ischemic insults.
Xenon is a high affinity antagonist at the MDA receptor glycine site. Xenon is cardio protective in ischemia-reperfusion conditions by inducing pharmacologic non-ischemic preconditioning.
Xenon is cardio protective by activating PKC-epsilon and downstream p38-MAPK. Xenon mimics neuronal ischemic preconditioning by activating ATP sensitive potassium channels.
Xenon allopatrically reduces ATP mediated channel activation inhibition independently of the sulfonylurea receptor1 subunit, increasing KATE open-channel time and frequency. Sports doping Inhaling a xenon /oxygen mixture activates production of the transcription factorHIF-1-alpha, which may lead to increased production of erythropoietin.
The latter hormone is known to increase red blood cell production and athletic performance. Reportedly, doping with xenon inhalation has been used in Russia since 2004 and perhaps earlier.
On August 31, 2014, the World Anti Doping Agency (WADA) added xenon (and argon) to the list of prohibited substances and methods, although no reliable doping tests for these gases have yet been developed. In addition, effects of xenon on erythropoietin production in humans have not been demonstrated, so far.
Imaging Xenon, particularly hyperpolarized 129 Xe, is a useful contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In the gas phase, it can image cavities in a porous sample, alveoli in lungs, or the flow of gases within the lungs.
Because xenon is soluble both in water and in hydrophobic solvents, it can image various soft living tissues. Surgery Because of the xenon atom's large, flexible outer electron shell, the NMR spectrum changes in response to surrounding conditions and can be used to monitor the surrounding chemical circumstances.
For instance, xenon dissolved in water, xenon dissolved in hydrophobic solvent, and xenon associated with certain proteins can be distinguished by NMR. Hyperpolarized xenon can be used by surface chemists.
Normally, it is difficult to characterize surfaces with NMR because signals from a surface are overwhelmed by signals from the atomic nuclei in the bulk of the sample, which are much more numerous than surface nuclei. However, nuclear spins on solid surfaces can be selectively polarized by transferring spin polarization to them from hyperpolarized xenon gas.
This makes the surface signals strong enough to measure and distinguish from bulk signals. Liquid xenon is used in calorimeters to measure gamma rays, and as a detector of hypothetical weakly interacting massive particles, or Wimps.
When a WIMP collides with a xenon nucleus, theory predicts it will impart enough energy to cause ionization and scintillation. Liquid xenon is useful for these experiments because its density makes dark matter interaction more likely, and it permits a quiet detector through self-shielding.
Xenon Hazards NFPA 704 (fire diamond) Because they are strongly oxidative, much oxygen– xenon compounds are toxic; they are also explosive (highly exothermic), breaking down to elemental xenon and diatomic oxygen (O 2) with much stronger chemical bonds than the xenon compounds.
Xenon gas can be safely kept in normal sealed glass or metal containers at standard temperature and pressure. However, it readily dissolves in most plastics and rubber, and will gradually escape from a container sealed with such materials.
Xenon is non- toxic, although it does dissolve in blood and belongs to a select group of substances that penetrate the blood–brain barrier, causing mild to full surgical anesthesia when inhaled in high concentrations with oxygen. The speed of sound in xenon gas (169 m/s) is less than that in air because the average velocity of the heavy xenon atoms is less than that of nitrogen and oxygen molecules in air.
Hence, xenon vibrates more slowly in the vocal cords when exhaled and produces lowered voice tones (low-frequency-enhanced sounds, but the fundamental frequency or pitch doesn't change), an effect opposite to the high-toned voice produced in helium. Specifically, when the vocal tract is filled with xenon gas, its natural resonant frequency becomes lower than when it's filled with air.
Thus, the low frequencies of the sound wave produced by the same direct vibration of the vocal cords would be enhanced, resulting in a change of the timbre of the sound amplified by the vocal tract. Like helium, xenon does not satisfy the body's need for oxygen, and it is both a simple asphyxia and an anesthetic more powerful than nitrous oxide; consequently, and because xenon is expensive, many universities have prohibited the voice stunt as a general chemistry demonstration.
The gas sulfur hexafluoride is similar to xenon in molecular weight (146 versus 131), less expensive, and though an asphyxia, not toxic or anesthetic; it is often substituted in these demonstrations. Dense gases such as xenon and sulfur hexafluoride can be breathed safely when mixed with at least 20% oxygen.
Xenon at 80% concentration along with 20% oxygen rapidly produces the unconsciousness of general anesthesia (and has been used for this, as discussed above). Breathing mixes gases of different densities very effectively and rapidly so that heavier gases are purged along with the oxygen, and do not accumulate at the bottom of the lungs.
There is, however, a danger associated with any heavy gas in large quantities: it may sit invisibly in a container, and a person who enters an area filled with an odorless, colorless gas may be asphyxiated without warning. Xenon is rarely used in large enough quantities for this to be a concern, though the potential for danger exists any time a tank or container of xenon is kept in an ventilated space.
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