Safety precautions need to be exercised while working with this laser, as it damages the human eye when exposed to the UV radiation. Human flesh also needs to be protected from the potentially carcinogenic effects of UV radiation from this laser.
Laser PropertiesLaser typeGasPump sourceHigh Voltage Electric dischargeOperating Wavelength351nm The primary application of xenon fluoride is in photolithography. Xe NO3 2 has not been isolated and characterized a related mononitrate: xenon fluoride nitrate has been made and studied.
Attempted production has used this an octahedral anionic fluoride complex of platinum and various xenon cations. It has been proposed that the platinum fluoride forms a negatively charged Xenon hexafluoride is a noble gas compound with the formula XeF6.
CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics compounds are more unstable than xenon fluorides due to the high polarity. Xenon forms several Fluoride volatility is the tendency of highly fluoridated molecules to vaporize at comparatively low temperatures.
It is synthesized by the reaction of xenon hexafluoride Ref 6 with nitrogen fluoride OF Ref 6 2 OF NO 2XeF 8 Other compounds liquid fluoride thorium reactor LFR often pronounced lifter is a type of molten salt reactor. This anion has octahedral molecular geometry, as determined by Roman heavier homologous of xenon hexafluoride, has been studied theoretically, but its synthesis has not yet been confirmed.
The game develops imagination, concentration, teaches how to solve tasks, plan their own actions and of course to think logically. Properties F 2 Xe Molar mass 169.290 g·MOL 1 Appearance White solid Density 4.32 g/cm 3, solid Melting point 128.6 °C (263.5 °F; 401.8 K) 25 g/L (0 °C) Vapor pressure 6.0×10 2 Pa Structure parallel linear Ref 2 units Linear 0 D Thermochemistry 254 J·MOL 1 ·K 1 108 kJ·MOL 1 Hazards Main hazards Corrosive to exposed tissues.
Related compounds Xenon chloride Xenon dibromideKrypton difluorideRadon fluoride Xenon tetra fluoride Xenon hexafluoride Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C , 100 PA). Info box references Xenon fluoride is a linear molecule with a Xe–F bond length of 197.73±0.15 pm in the vapor stage, and 200 pm in the solid phase.
The packing arrangement in solid Ref 2 shows that the fluorine atoms of neighboring molecules avoid the equatorial region of each Ref 2 molecule. This agrees with the prediction of VS EPR theory, which predicts that there are 3 pairs of non-bonding electrons around the equatorial region of the xenon atom.
At high pressures, novel, non-molecular forms of xenon fluoride can be obtained. Under a pressure of ~50 GPA, Ref 2 transforms into a semiconductor consisting of Ref 4 units linked in a two-dimensional structure, like graphite.
At even higher pressures, above 70 GPA, it becomes metallic, forming a three-dimensional structure containing Ref 8 units. However, a recent theoretical study has cast doubt on these experimental results.
Xe + F 2 Ref 2 The reaction needs heat, irradiation, or an electrical discharge. It is purified by fractional distillation or selective condensation using a vacuum line.
The first published report of Ref 2 was in October 1962 by Herrick, et al. However, though published later, Ref 2 was probably first created by Rudolf Hope at the University of Münster, Germany, in early 1962, by reacting fluorine and xenon gas mixtures in an electrical discharge. Shortly after these reports, Weeks, Cheswick, and Matheson of Argonne National Laboratory reported the synthesis of Ref 2 using an all-nickel system with transparent alumina windows, in which equal parts xenon and fluorine gases react at low pressure upon irradiation by an ultraviolet source to give Ref 2.
Williamson reported that the reaction works equally well at atmospheric pressure in a dry Pyrex glass bulb using sunlight as a source. It was noted that the synthesis worked even on cloudy days.
In the previous syntheses the fluorine gas reactant had been purified to remove hydrogen fluoride. Small and Lunar found that if this step is skipped the reaction rate proceeds at four times the original rate.
The unstable organoxenon compound Xe(CF 3) 2 can be made by irradiating hexafluoroethane to generate CF • 3 radicals and passing the gas over Ref 2. The resulting waxy white solid decomposes completely within 4 hours at room temperature.
Xe + 2(APF) + 4 SBF 6(APF) Xe + 2 Sb 4 F 21(s) + 3 F (APF) Mg(ASF 6) 2 + 4 Ref 2 (ASF 6) 2 Crystallographic analysis shows that the magnesium atom is coordinated to 6 fluorine atoms. Four of the fluorine atoms are attributed to the four xenon fluoride ligands while the other two are a pair of cis ASF 6 ligands.
This reaction requires a large excess of xenon fluoride. The structure of the salt is such that half of the Ca 2+ ions are coordinated by fluorine atoms from xenon fluoride, while the other Ca 2+ ions are coordinated by both Ref 2 and ASF 6.
Xenon fluoride is a strong fluoridating and oxidizing agent. With fluoride ion acceptors, it forms Ref + and Xe 2 F + 3 species which are even more powerful lubricators.
Among the fluoridation reactions that xenon fluoride undergoes are: pH 3 TEF + Ref 2 pH 3 TEF 3 + Xe2 CRO 2 F 2 + Ref 2 2 Crop 3 + Xe +O 2 Ref 2 is selective about which atom it fluoridates, making it a useful reagent for fluoridating hetero atoms without touching other substituent in organic compounds.
First, the Ref 2 adsorbs and dissociates to xenon and fluorine atoms on the surface of silicon. Fluorine is the main enchant in the silicon etching process.
The reaction describing the silicon with Ref 2 is 2 Ref 2 + Si 2 Xe + If 4 Ref 2 has a relatively high etch rate and does not require ion bombardment or external energy sources in order to etch silicon.
^ James L. Weeks; Max S. Matheson (2007). “Two- and three-dimensional extended solids and metallization of compressed XeF2”.
“Freezing in Resonance Structures for Better Packing: XeF2Becomes (Ref+)(FM) at Large Compression”. ^ Crockett, A. H.; Smith, K. C.; Bartlett, Neil (2013).
^ Herrick, CL and Classes, HH and Fields, PR and Hyman, HH and Male, JG and Manning, WM and Matheson, MS and Quarter man, LA and Schreiner, F. and Selim, HH; et al. (1962). “Fluorine Compounds of Xenon and Radon”.
CS1 main: multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Hope, R.; Daphne, W.; Attach, H.; Redder, K. (1962). “Die Valenzverbindungen her Edelweiss”.
First review on the subject by the pioneer of covalent noble gas compounds. “Photochemical Preparation of Xenon Di fluoride” Photochemical Preparation of Xenon Di fluoride”.
A New Method for the Synthesis of Xenon Di fluoride”. ^ a b Harding, Charlie; Johnson, David Arthur; Jane's, Rob (2002).
Royal Society of Chemistry, Open University. ^ Brown, D. R.; Cl egg, M. J.; Downs, A. J.; Fowler, R. C.; Minivan, A. R.; Norris, J. R.; Stein, L..
“The Dixon(1+) cation: formation in the condensed phases and characterization by ESR, UV-visible, and Roman spectroscopy”. “Production of Dixon cation by reversible oxidation of xenon “.
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^ Shunting, Hunter P.; FRUP, Natalia; Wang, Filming; Rainier, Vivek; Taste, F. Dean (2013-07-22). “Enantioselective Fluoroamination: 1,4-Addition to Conjugated Dines Using Anionic Phase-Transfer Catalysis”.
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