They suit rock gardens, border fronts, raised beds, and containers. Place wallflowers in an area of the garden where they receive full sun in northern climates.
If you plan on growing them as a perennial, shear them back after initial bloom to promote dense bushy growth. 'Bowles Mauve' is a classic variety with gray-green leaves, pale purple flowers, and a pleasant fragrance.
Elysium 'Orange Bedder' bears bright clusters of orange flowers on compact, 1-foot-tall plants. Found with increasing frequency in garden centers, fascia is a snapdragonlike flower gaining popularity because you can plant it so early in the spring.
Plant snapdragons in early spring, a few weeks before your region's last frost date. Plant it in spring several weeks before your region's last frost date; this annual thrives in cool temperatures and stops blooming once hot weather arrives.
It's especially wonderful in window boxes and planters at nose level, where its sometimes subtle, spicy scent can best be appreciated. It makes a great cut flower, perfuming bouquets as well as the border.
It grows best in full sun or part shade and moist, well-drained soil. Bring nature indoors with houseplants that will transform your home into a green haven to help you to relax, distress...
Most wallflower plants are of the genus Elysium, with some types being from Characters, sometimes called Wildflower. Wallflower plants have perky spring blooms, often in shades of yellow and orange.
Newer cultivars of the wallflower garden plant come in shades of pinks, purples and blue; some varieties have chocolate or crimson blooms. Perennial wallflower plants are grown as annuals in colder zones.
But they retain evergreen foliage in USDA gardening zones 8-10, which may have a silvery tint. Cover seeds lightly or simply press them into moist soil.
Once sprouted, some gardeners cover with netting about 8 inches (20 cm.) Grow wallflower plants in a sunny or partly shaded location.
Wallflower care includes the pinching back of spent blooms. You’ll find wallflowers are a simple, colorful and sweet-smelling addition to the garden.
Erysimum solarium Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantar Clade : Tracheophytes Clade : Angiosperms Clade : Edicts Clade : Rosins Order: Brassieres Family: Brassicaceae Genus: Elysium L. Species Synonyms and others Wallflowers are annuals, herbaceous perennials or sub-shrubs. The perennial species are short-lived and in cultivation treated as biennials.
Most species have stems erect, somewhat winged, cane scent with an indumentum of IFID hairs, usually 25 ± 53 cm × 2–3 mm in size, and t-shaped trachomas. The lower leaves are linear to oblanceolate pinnatifid with backwardly directed lobes, acute, 50–80 mm × 0.5–3 mm.
Inflorescence are produced in racemes, with bright yellow to red or pink bilateral and hermaphrodite, misogynous and ebracteateflowers. Flowering occurs during spring and summer.
One species, Elysium semperflorens, native to Morocco and Algeria, has white flowers. The floral pedicle ranges from 4 to 7 mm.
The genus name Elysium is derived from the Greek word 'Ergo' meaning to drag. Wallflowers are native to southwest Asia, the Mediterranean, Europe, Africa (Cab Verde), Micronesia, and North America through Costa Rica.
Many wallflowers are endemic to small areas, such as: Most wallflower garden cultivars (e.g. Elysium 'Chelsea Jacket') are derived from E. chart (often placed in Characters), from Southern Europe.
They are often attacked by fungal and bacterial disease, so they are best grown as biennials and discarded after flowering. They are also susceptible to clubfoot, a disease of Brassicaceae.
Growth is best in dry soils with very good drainage, and they are often grown successfully in loose wall mortar, hence the vernacular name. There is a wide range of flower color in the warm spectrum, including white, yellow, orange, red, pink, maroon, purple and brown.
The flowers, appearing in spring, usually have a strong fragrance. Wallflowers are often associated in spring bedding schemes with tulips and forget-me-nots.
Elysium is found in a range of habitats across the Northern Hemisphere, and has developed diverse morphology and growth habits (herbaceous annual or perennial, and woody perennial). Different Elysium species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths) species including the garden carpet (Xanthorhoe fluctuate).
In addition, some species of weevils, like Ceutorhynchus chloroplasts, live inside the fruits feeding on the developing seeds. Many species of beetles, bugs and grasshoppers eat the leaves and stalks.
Some mammalian herbivores, for example mule deer (Odocoileus heinous) in North America, alkali (Ovis Amman) in Mongolia, red deer (Corvus Dreyfus) in Central Europe, or Spanish ibex (Capra Prentice) in the Iberian Peninsula, feed on wallflower flowering and fruiting stalks. Elysium crepidifolium (pale wallflower) is toxic to some generalist vertebrate herbivores.
Most wallflowers are pollinator-generalists, their flowers being visited by many species of bees, bee flies, overflies, butterflies, beetles, and ants. For example, Elysium solarium is pollinated almost exclusively by Anaphora alluded.
Like most Brassicaceae, species in the genus Elysium produce glucosinolates as defensive compounds. However, unlike almost all other genera in the Brassicaceae, Elysium also accumulates cardiac glucosides, another class of phytochemicals with an ecological importance in insect defense.
Cardiac glucosides specifically function to prevent insect herbivory and/or opposition by blocking ion channel function in muscle cells. These chemicals are toxic enough to deter generalist, and even some specialist insect herbivores.
Cardiac glucoside production is widespread in Elysium, with at least 48 species in the genus containing these compounds. Accumulation of cardiac glucosides in Elysium crepidifolium, but not other tested species, is induced by treatment with harmonic acid and methyl carbonate, endogenous electors of chemical defenses in many plant species.
Molecular phylogenetic analysis indicates that Elysium diversification from other Brassicaceae species that do not produce cardiac glucosides began in the Pliocene (2.33–5.2 million years ago), suggesting relatively recent evolution of cardiac glucosides as a defensive trait in this genus. The evolution of novel chemical defenses in plants, such as cardenolides in the genus Elysium, is predicted to allow escape from herbivory by specialist herbivores and expansion into new ecological niches.
The crucifer-feeding specialist Pierces RAPACE (white cabbage butterfly) is deterred from feeding and opposition by cardenolides in Elysium cheiranthoides. Similarly, Anthocyanin card amines (orange tip butterfly), which opposite on almost all cruiser species, avoids E. cheiranthoides.
Elysium serum (western wallflower) is resistant to feeding and opposition of Paris Nazi macdunnoughii (synonym Paris marginalia, margined white butterfly). And Phyllotreta SP., were deterred from feeding by cardenolides that were applied to their preferred food plants.
Consistent with the hypothesis of enhanced speciation after escape from herbivory, phylogenetic studies involving 128 Elysium species indicate diversification in Eurasia between 0.5 and 2 million years ago, and in North America between 0.7 and 1.65 million years ago.) This evolutionarily rapid expansion of the Elysium genus has resulted in several hundred known species distributed throughout the Northern Hemisphere.
Elysium species have a long history of use in traditional medicine. In Naturalist Historian by Pliny the Elder (~77), Elysium is classified as a medicinal rather than a food plant.
Elysium chart is described as a medicinal herb in De Material Media by Pedants Discords (~70), which was the predominant European medical pharmacopeia for more than 1,500 years. Other medieval descriptions of medicinal herbs and their uses, including the Dispensatorium DES Corpus by Valerie Corpus (1542), Bock's Kräuterbuch by Hieronymus Bock (1577), and Tabernaemontanus’ New Kreuterbuch by Jacobus Theodore Tabernaemontanus (1588), also discuss applications of E. chart.
In traditional Chinese medicine, Elysium cheiranthoides has been used to treat heart disease and other ailments. Although medical uses of Elysium became uncommon in Europe after the Middle Ages, Elysium diffuse, as well as purified erosion and erysimoside, have been applied more recently as Ukrainian ethnobotanical treatments.
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“Die herzwirksamen Glucoside von Characters Chart UND verwandten Arden”. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Elysium. Look up wallflower in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.