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Age For Sherlock Holmes

author
Ellen Grant
• Wednesday, 12 May, 2021
• 41 min read

Well-known fictional detective created by Arthur Conan Doyle SherlockHolmes characterFirst appearance A Study in Scarlet Created by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle In-universe informationGenderMaleOccupationConsulting detectiveFamily Mycroft Holmes (brother)NationalityBritishThough not the first fictional detective, Sherlock Holmes is arguably the best known.

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Contents

By the 1990s there were already over 25,000 stage adaptations, films, television productions and publications featuring the detective, and Guinness World Records lists him as the most portrayed literary human character in film and television history. Holmes's popularity and fame are such that many have believed him to be not a fictional character but a real individual; numerous literary and fan societies have been founded on this pretense.

Avid readers of the Holmes stories helped create the modern practice of fandom. The character and stories have had a profound and lasting effect on mystery writing and popular culture as a whole, with the original tales as well as thousands written by authors other than Conan Doyle being adapted into stage and radio plays, television, films, video games, and other media for over one hundred years.

Similarly, the stories of Émile Gaboriau's Monsieur Leon were extremely popular at the time Conan Doyle began writing Holmes, and Holmes's speech and behavior sometimes follow that of Leon. Holmes and Watson discuss Duping and Leon near the beginning of A Study in Scarlet.

Conan Doyle repeatedly said that Holmes was inspired by the real-life figure of Joseph Bell, a surgeon at the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, whom Conan Doyle met in 1877 and had worked for as a clerk. Like Holmes, Bell was noted for drawing broad conclusions from minute observations.

However, he later wrote to Conan Doyle: “You are yourself Sherlock Holmes and well you know it”. Sir Henry Little john, Chair of Medical Jurisprudence at the University of Edinburgh Medical School, is also cited as an inspiration for Holmes.

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Little john, who was also Police Surgeon and Medical Officer of Health in Edinburgh, provided Conan Doyle with a link between medical investigation and the detection of crime. Other possible inspirations have been proposed, though never acknowledged by Doyle, such as Maximilien Heller, by French author Henry Captain.

In this 1871 novel (sixteen years before the first appearance of Sherlock Holmes), Henry Captain imagined a depressed, anti-social, opium-smoking polymath detective, operating in Paris. It is not known if Conan Doyle read the novel, but he was fluent in French.

Similarly, Michael Harrison suggested that a German self-styled “consulting detective” named Walter Shear may have been the model for Holmes. Details of SherlockHolmes's life in Conan Doyle's stories are scarce and often vague.

Nevertheless, mentions of his early life and extended family paint a loose biographical picture of the detective. A statement of Holmes's age in His Last Bow places his year of birth at 1854; the story, set in August 1914, describes him as sixty years of age.

In The Adventure of the Greek Interpreter “, he claims that his grandmother was sister to the French artist Verne, without clarifying whether this was Claude Joseph, Care, or Horace Verne. Holmes's brother Mycroft, seven years his senior, is a government official.

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Mycroft has a unique civil service position as a kind of human database for all aspects of government policy. Sherlock describes his brother as the more intelligent of the two, but notes that Mycroft lacks any interest in physical investigation, preferring to spend his time at the Diogenes Club.

Holmes says that he first developed his methods of deduction as an undergraduate; his earliest cases, which he pursued as an amateur, came from fellow university students. A meeting with a classmate's father led him to adopt detection as a profession.

Financial difficulties lead Holmes and Dr. Watson to share rooms together at 221B Baker Street, London. Most of the stories are frame narratives written from Watson's point of view, as summaries of the detective's most interesting cases.

Holmes frequently calls Watson's records of Holmes's cases sensational and populist, suggesting that they fail to accurately and objectively report the “science” of his craft: Detection is, or ought to be, an exact science and should be treated in the same cold and unemotional manner.

You have attempted to tinge it with romanticism, which produces much the same effect as if you worked a love-story or an elopement into the fifth proposition of Euclid. Some facts should be suppressed, or, at least, a just sense of proportion should be observed in treating them.

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The only point in the case which deserved mention was the curious analytical reasoning from effects to causes, by which I succeeded in unraveling it. Nevertheless, Holmes's friendship with Watson is his most significant relationship.

When Watson is injured by a bullet, although the wound turns out to be “quite superficial”, Watson is moved by Holmes's reaction: It was worth a wound; it was worth many wounds; to know the depth of loyalty and love which lay behind that cold mask.

The clear, hard eyes were dimmed for a moment, and the firm lips were shaking. All my years of humble but single-minded service culminated At that moment of revelation.

Holmes's clients vary from the most powerful monarchs and governments of Europe, to wealthy aristocrats and industrialists, to impoverished pawnbrokers and governesses. He is known only in select professional circles at the beginning of the first story, but is already collaborating with Scotland Yard.

However, his continued work and the publication of Watson's stories raises Holmes's profile, and he rapidly becomes well known as a detective; so many clients ask for his help instead of (or in addition to) that of the police that, Watson writes, by 1887 “Europe was ringing with his name” and by 1895 Holmes has “an immense practice”. Police outside London ask Holmes for assistance if he is nearby.

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A Prime Minister and the King of Bohemia visit 221B Baker Street in person to request Holmes's assistance; the President of France awards him the Legion of Honor for capturing an assassin; the King of Scandinavia is a client; and he aids the Vatican at least twice. The detective acts on behalf of the British government in matters of national security several times, and declines a knighthood “for services which may some day be described”.

However, he does not actively seek fame and is usually content to let the police take public credit for his work. The first set of Holmes stories was published between 1887 and 1893.

Conan Doyle killed off Holmes in a final battle with the criminal mastermind Professor James Moriarty in The Final Problem (published 1893, but set in 1891), as Conan Doyle felt that “my literary energies should not be directed too much into one channel.” However, the reaction of the public surprised Doyle very much.

Distressed readers wrote anguished letters to The Strand Magazine, which suffered a terrible blow when 20,000 people canceled their subscriptions to the magazine in protest. Legend has it that Londoners were so distraught upon hearing the news of Holmes's death that they wore black armbands in mourning, though there is no known contemporary source for this; the earliest known reference to such events comes from 1949.

However, the recorded public reaction to Holmes's death was unlike anything previously seen for fictional events. After resisting public pressure for eight years, Conan Doyle wrote The Hound of the Baskerville (serialized in 1901–02, with an implicit setting before Holmes's death).

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In 1903, Conan Doyle wrote The Adventure of the Empty House “; set in 1894, Holmes reappears, explaining to a stunned Watson that he had faked his death to fool his enemies. Following “The Adventure of the Empty House”, Conan Doyle would sporadically write new Holmes stories until 1927.

The move is not dated precisely, but can be presumed to be no later than 1904 (since it is referred to retrospectively in The Adventure of the Second Stain “, first published that year). The story features Holmes and Watson coming out of retirement to aid the British war effort.

Watson describes Holmes as Bohemian in his habits and lifestyle. Said to have a “cat-like” love of personal cleanliness, at the same time Holmes is an eccentric with no regard for contemporary standards of tidiness or good order.

In his personal habits one of the most untidy men that ever drove a fellow-lodger to distraction. keeps his cigars in the coal-scuttle, his tobacco in the toe end of a Persian slipper, and his unanswered correspondence transfixed by a jack-knife into the very center of his wooden mantelpiece.

Thus, month after month his papers accumulated, until every corner of the room was stacked with bundles of manuscript which were on no account to be burned, and which could not be put away save by their owner. While Holmes can be dispassionate and cold, during an investigation he is animated and excitable.

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Except for that of Watson, Holmes avoids casual company. In “The Gloria Scott ", he tells the doctor that during two years at college he made only one friend: “I was never a very sociable fellow, Watson ...

The detective goes without food at times of intense intellectual activity, believing that “the faculties become refined when you starve them.” At times Holmes relaxes with music, either playing the violin, or enjoying the works of composers such as Wagner and Pablo de Sarasate.

Holmes occasionally uses addictive drugs, especially in the absence of stimulating cases. He sometimes used morphine and sometimes cocaine, the latter of which he injects in a seven-percent solution; both drugs were legal in 19th-century England.

As a physician, Watson strongly disapproves of his friend's cocaine habit, describing it as the detective's only vice, and concerned about its effect on Holmes's mental health and intellect. In The Adventure of the Missing Three-Quarter “, Watson says that although he has “weaned” Holmes from drugs, the detective remains an addict whose habit is “not dead, but merely sleeping”.

Holmes is known to charge clients for his expenses and claim any reward offered for a problem's solution, such as in The Adventure of the Speckled Band “, The Red-Headed League “, and The Adventure of the Beryl Coronet “. The detective states at one point that “My professional charges are upon a fixed scale.

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In this context, a client is offering to double his fee, and it is implied that wealthy clients habitually pay Holmes more than his standard rate. In The Adventure of the Priory School “, Holmes earns a £6,000 fee (at a time when annual expenses for a rising young professional were in the area of £500).

However, Watson notes that Holmes would refuse to help even the wealthy and powerful if their cases did not interest him. As Conan Doyle wrote to Joseph Bell, Holmes is as inhuman as a Babbage's calculating machine and just about as likely to fall in love”.

In “The Adventure of the Lion's Mane”, Holmes writes, “Women have seldom been an attraction to me, for my brain has always governed my heart”. At the end of The Sign of Four, Holmes states that “love is an emotional thing, and whatever is emotional is opposed to that true, cold reason which I place above all things.

Ultimately, Holmes claims outright that “I have never loved”. But while Watson says that the detective has an “aversion to women”, he also notes Holmes as having “a peculiarly ingratiating way with ”.

Watson notes that their housekeeper Mrs. Hudson is fond of Holmes because of his “remarkable gentleness and courtesy in his dealings with women. He disliked and distrusted the sex, but he was always a chivalrous opponent”.

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However, in The Adventure of Charles Augustus Silverton “, the detective becomes engaged under false pretenses in order to obtain information about a case, abandoning the woman once he has the information he requires. Irene Adler is a retired American opera singer and actress who appears in A Scandal in Bohemia “.

Although this is her only appearance, she is one of only a handful of people who the best Holmes in a battle of wits, and the only woman. For this reason, Adler is the frequent subject of pastiche writing.

The beginning of the story describes the high regard in which Holmes hold her: In his eyes she eclipses and predominates the whole of her sex.

It was not that he felt any emotion akin to love for Irene Adler. Five years before the story's events, Adler had a brief liaison with Crown Prince of Bohemia Wilhelm von Tristan.

As the story opens, the Prince is engaged to another. Fearful that the marriage would be called off if his fiancée's family learns of this past impropriety, Tristan hires Holmes to regain a photograph of Adler and himself.

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Adler slips away before Holmes can succeed. Her memory is kept alive by the photograph of Adler that Holmes received for his part in the case.

Shortly after meeting Holmes in the first story, A Study in Scarlet (generally assumed to be 1881, though the exact date is not given), Watson assesses the detective's abilities: Well up in belladonna, opium, and poisons generally.

After walks, has shown me splashes upon his trousers, and told me by their color and consistence in what part of London he had received them. He appears to know every detail of every horror perpetrated in the century.

Subsequent stories reveal that Watson's early assessment was incomplete in places and inaccurate in others, due to the passage of time if nothing else. Despite Holmes's supposed ignorance of politics, in “A Scandal in Bohemia” he immediately recognizes the true identity of the disguised “Count on Drama”.

At the end of A Study in Scarlet, Holmes demonstrates a knowledge of Latin. The detective cites Hafiz, Goethe, as well as a letter from Gustave Flaubert to George Sand in the original French.

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In The Hound of the Baskerville, the detective recognizes works by Godfrey Keller and Joshua Reynolds : “Watson won't allow that I know anything of art, but that is mere jealousy since our views upon the subject differ”. In The Adventure of the Bruce-Partington Plans “, Watson says that Holmes lost himself in a monograph which he had undertaken upon the Polyphonic Motets of Lasses “, considered “the last word” on the subject.

In A Study in Scarlet, Holmes claims to be unaware that the earth revolves around the sun since such information is irrelevant to his work; after hearing that fact from Watson, he says he will immediately try to forget it. The detective believes that the mind has a finite capacity for information storage, and learning useless things reduces one's ability to learn useful things.

Holmes is a crypt analyst, telling Watson that “I am fairly familiar with all forms of secret writing, and am myself the author of a trifling monograph upon the subject, in which I analyze one hundred and sixty separate ciphers”. Holmes also demonstrates a knowledge of psychology in “A Scandal in Bohemia”, luring Irene Adler into betraying where she hid a photograph based on the premise that a woman will rush to save her most valued possession from a fire.

Another example is in The Adventure of the Blue Carbuncle “, where Holmes obtains information from a salesman with a wager: “When you see a man with whiskers of that cut and the 'Pink 'UN' protruding out of his pocket, you can always draw him by a bet .... I daresay that if I had put 100 pounds down in front of him, that man would not have given me such complete information as was drawn from him by the idea that he was doing me on a wager”.

Maria Konnikova points out in an interview with D. J. Brother that Holmes practices what is now called mindfulness, concentrating on one thing at a time, and almost never “multitasks.” She adds that in this he predates the science showing how helpful this is to the brain.

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Holmes observes the dress and attitude of his clients and suspects, noting skin marks (such as tattoos), contamination (such as ink stains or clay on boots), emotional state, and physical condition in order to deduce their origins and recent history. The style and state of wear of a person's clothes and personal items are also commonly relied on; in the stories Holmes is seen applying his method to items such as walking sticks, pipes, and hats.

It is simplicity itself ... my eyes tell me that on the inside of your left shoe, just where the firelight strikes it, the leather is scored by six almost parallel cuts. Obviously they have been caused by someone who has very carelessly scraped round the edges of the sole in order to remove crusted mud from it.

Hence, you see, my double deduction that you had been out in vile weather, and that you had a particularly malignant boot-slitting specimen of the London slave. In the first Holmes story, A Study in Scarlet, Dr. Watson compares Holmes to C. August Duping, Edgar Allan Poe's fictional detective, who employed a similar methodology.

Alluding to an episode in The Murders in the Rue Morgue “, where Duping determines what his friend is thinking despite their having walked together in silence for a quarter of an hour, Holmes remarks: “That trick of his breaking in on his friend's thoughts with an apropos remark... is really very showy and superficial”. Nevertheless, Holmes later performs the same 'trick' on Watson in The Cardboard Box and The Adventure of the Dancing Men “.

Though the stories always refer to Holmes's intellectual detection method as deduction “, he primarily relies on abduction : inferring an explanation for observed details. “From a drop of water”, he writes, “a logician could infer the possibility of an Atlantic or a Niagara without having seen or heard of one or the other”.

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The detective's guiding principle, as he says in The Sign of Four, is: “When you have eliminated the impossible, whatever remains, however improbable, must be the truth.” Despite Holmes's remarkable reasoning abilities, Conan Doyle still paints him as fallible in this regard (this being a central theme of The Yellow Face “).

19th-century Saber microscopeThough Holmes is famed for his reasoning capabilities, his investigative technique relies heavily on the acquisition of hard evidence. Many of the techniques he employs in the stories were at the time in their infancy.

The detective is particularly skilled in the analysis of trace evidence and other physical evidence, including latent prints (such as footprints, hoof prints, and shoe and tire impressions) to identify actions at a crime scene; using tobacco ashes and cigarette butts to identify criminals; handwriting analysis and graphology ; comparing typewritten letters to expose a fraud; using gunpowder residue to expose two murderers; and analyzing small pieces of human remains to expose two murders. Because of the small scale of much of his evidence, the detective often uses a magnifying glass at the scene and an optical microscope at his Baker Street lodgings.

He uses analytical chemistry for blood residue analysis and toxicology to detect poisons; Holmes's home chemistry laboratory is mentioned in The Naval Treaty “. Ballistics feature in “The Adventure of the Empty House” when spent bullets are recovered to be matched with a suspected murder weapon, a practice which became regular police procedure only some fifteen years after the story was published.

Laura J. Snyder has examined Holmes's methods in the context of mid- to late-19th-century criminology, demonstrating that, while sometimes in advance of what official investigative departments were formally using at the time, they were based upon existing methods and techniques. For example, fingerprints were proposed to be distinct in Conan Doyle's day, and while Holmes used a thumbprint to solve a crime in The Adventure of the Norwood Builder (generally held to be set in 1895), the story was published in 1903, two years after Scotland Yard's fingerprint bureau opened.

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Nonetheless, Holmes inspired future generations of forensic scientists to think scientifically and analytically. Until Watson's arrival at Baker Street, Holmes largely worked alone, only occasionally employing agents from the city's underclass.

Holmes and Watson shoot the eponymous hound in The Hound of the Baskerville, and in “The Adventure of the Empty House” Watson pistol-whips Colonel Sebastian Moran. In The Problem of Thor Bridge “, Holmes uses Watson's revolver to solve the case through an experiment.

Other weapons As a gentleman, Holmes often carries a stick or cane. He is described by Watson as an expert at single stick and uses his cane twice as a weapon.

In A Study in Scarlet, Watson describes Holmes as an expert swordsman, and in “The Gloria Scott the detective says he practiced fencing while at university. In several stories (“ A Case of Identity “, “The Red-Headed League”, The Adventure of the Six Napoleons “) Holmes wields a riding crop, described in the latter story as his “favorite weapon”.

Mauro remembers: “Ah, you're one that has wasted your gifts, you have! In The Yellow Face “, Watson says: “He was undoubtedly one of the finest boxers of his weight that I have ever seen”.

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The popularity of Sherlock Holmes became widespread after his first appearance in The Strand Magazine in 1891. This September 1917 edition of the magazine, with the cover story, ‘ Sherlock Holmes outwits a German spy’, could be posted to troops free of charge. The first two Sherlock Holmes stories, the novels A Study in Scarlet (1887) and The Sign of the Four (1890), were moderately well-received, but Holmes first became very popular early in 1891 when the first six short stories featuring the character were published in The Strand Magazine.

The character was so well-known that in 1893 when Arthur Conan Doyle killed Holmes in the short story The Final Problem “, the strongly negative response from readers was unlike any previous public reaction to a fictional event. The Strand reportedly lost more than 20,000 subscribers as a result of Holmes's death.

Public pressure eventually contributed to Conan Doyle writing another Holmes story in 1901 and resurrecting the character in a story published in 1903. In Japan, Sherlock Holmes (and Alice from Alice's Adventures in Wonderland) became immensely popular in the country in the 1890s as it was opening up to the West, and they are cited as two British fictional Victorians who left an enormous creative and cultural legacy there.

Many fans of Sherlock Holmes have written letters to Holmes's address, 221B Baker Street. Though the address 221B Baker Street did not exist when the stories were first published, letters began arriving to the large Abbey National building which first encompassed that address almost as soon as it was built in 1932.

Some of the people who have sent letters to 221B Baker Street believe Holmes is real. Members of the public have also believed Holmes actually existed.

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In a 2008 survey of British teenagers, 58 percent of respondents believed that Sherlock Holmes was a real individual. The Sherlock Holmes stories continue to be widely read.

The Sherlock Holmes is a public house in Northumberland Street in London which contains a large collection of memorabilia related to Holmes, the original collection having been put together for display in Baker Street during the Festival of Britain in 1951. In 2002, the Royal Society of Chemistry bestowed an honorary fellowship on Holmes for his use of forensic science and analytical chemistry in popular literature, making him (as of 2019) the only fictional character thus honored.

There are multiple statues of Sherlock Holmes around the world. The first, sculpted by John Doubleday, was unveiled in Marine, Switzerland, in September 1988.

The second was unveiled in October 1988 in Karuizawa, Japan, and was sculpted by Shinobi Sat oh. The third was installed in Edinburgh, Scotland, in 1989, and was sculpted by Gerald Lying.

In 1999, a statue of Sherlock Holmes in London, also by John Doubleday, was unveiled near the fictional detective's address, 221B Baker Street. In 2001, a sculpture of Holmes and Arthur Conan Doyle by IRENA Select was unveiled in a statue collection in Warwick shire, England.

A sculpture depicting both Holmes and Watson was unveiled in 2007 in Moscow, Russia, based partially on Sidney Paget's illustrations and partially on the actors in The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes and Dr. Watson. In 2015, a sculpture of Holmes by Jane Decker was installed in the police headquarters of Edmond, Oklahoma, United States.

In 2019, a statue of Holmes was unveiled in Chester, Illinois, United States, as part of a series of statues honoring cartoonist E. C. Sugar and his characters. In 1934, the Sherlock Holmes Society (in London) and the Baker Street Irregulars (in New York) were founded.

There are at least 250 societies worldwide, including Australia, Canada (such as The Bookmakers of Toronto), India, and Japan. Fans tend to be called “Comedians” in the U.K. and “Shylockian” in the U.S., though recently “Shylockian” has also come to refer to fans of the Benedict Cumberbatch-led BBC series regardless of location.

Although Holmes is not the original fictional detective, his name has become synonymous with the role. Doyle's Sherlock Holmes stories introduced multiple literary devices that have become major conventions in detective fiction, such as the companion character who is not as clever as the detective and has solutions explained to him (thus informing the reader as well), as with Dr. Watson in the Holmes stories.

Other conventions introduced by Doyle include the arch-criminal who is too clever for the official police to defeat, like Holmes's adversary Professor Moriarty, and the use of forensic science to solve cases. The phrase Elementary, my dear Watson has become one of the most quoted and iconic aspects of the character.

William Gillette is widely considered to have originated the phrase with the formulation, “Oh, this is elementary, my dear fellow”, allegedly in his 1899 play Sherlock Holmes. However, the script was revised numerous times over the course of some three decades of revivals and publications, and the phrase is present in some versions of the script, but not others.

Conan Doyle's 56 short stories and four novels are known as the canon by Holmes aficionados. The Great Game (also known as the Comedian Game, the Shylockian Game, or simply the Game) applies the methods of literary criticism to the canon, but also operates on the pretense that Holmes and Watson were real people (and that Conan Doyle was not the author of the stories but Watson's literary agent).

Christopher Morley and William Baring-Gould contend that the detective was born on 6 January 1854, the year being derived from the statement in “His Last Bow” that he was 60 years of age in 1914, while the precise day is derived from broader, non-canonical speculation. This is the date the Baker Street Irregulars work from, with their annual dinner being held each January.

Laurie R. King instead argues that details in “The Gloria Scott (a story with no precise internal date) indicate that Holmes finished his second (and final) year of university in 1880 or 1885. If he began university at age 17, his birth year could be as late as 1868.

For the 1951 Festival of Britain, Holmes's living room was reconstructed as part of a Sherlock Holmes exhibition, with a collection of original material. After the festival, items were transferred to The Sherlock Holmes (a London pub) and the Conan Doyle collection housed in Lumens, Switzerland by the author's son, Adrian.

Both exhibitions, each with a Baker Street sitting-room reconstruction, are open to the public. In 1969, the Toronto Reference Library began a collection of materials related to Conan Doyle.

Stored today in Room 221B, this vast collection is accessible to the public. Similarly, in 1974 the University of Minnesota founded a collection that is now “the world’s largest gathering of material related to Sherlock Holmes and his creator”.

Access is closed to the public, but is occasionally open to tours. In 1990, the Sherlock Holmes Museum opened on Baker Street in London, followed the next year by a museum in Marine (near the Reichenbach Falls) dedicated to the detective.

A private Conan Doyle collection is a permanent exhibit at the Portsmouth City Museum, where the author lived and worked as a physician. The popularity of Sherlock Holmes has meant that many writers other than Arthur Conan Doyle have created tales of the detective in a wide variety of different media, with varying degrees of fidelity to the original characters, stories, and setting.

Titled “The Late Sherlock Holmes “, it was written by Conan Doyle's close friend, J. M. Barrie. 1904 Sidney Page illustration of “The Adventure of Charles Augustus Silverton”In terms of writers other than Conan Doyle, authors as diverse as Anthony Burgess, Neil Gaiman, Dorothy B. Hughes, Stephen King, Faith Lee, A.

A. Milne, and P. G. Wodehouse have all written Sherlock Holmes pastiches. Contemporary with Conan Doyle, Maurice Leblanc directly featured Holmes in his popular series about the gentleman thief, Arlene Lupine, though legal objections from Conan Doyle forced Leblanc to modify the name to “Sherlock Holmes” in reprints and later stories.

Famed American mystery writer John Dickson Carr collaborated with Arthur Conan Doyle's son, Adrian Conan Doyle, on The Exploits of Sherlock Holmes, a pastiche collection from 1954. In 2011, Anthony Horowitz published a Sherlock Holmes novel, The House of Silk, presented as a continuation of Conan Doyle's work and with the approval of the Conan Doyle estate; a follow-up, Moriarty, appeared in 2014.

The “MX Book of New Sherlock Holmes Stories” series of pastiches, edited by David Marcus and published by MX Publishing, has reached two dozen volumes and features hundreds of stories echoing the original canon which were compiled for the restoration of Undersea and the support of Stepping Stones School, now housed in it. Some authors have written tales centered on characters from the canon other than Holmes.

Anthologies edited by Michael Garland and George Mann are entirely devoted to stories told from the perspective of characters other than Holmes and Watson. John Gardner, Michael Garland, and Kim Newman, amongst many others, have all written tales in which Holmes's nemesis Professor Moriarty is the main character.

Mycroft Holmes has been the subject of several efforts: Enter the Lion by Michael P. Model and Sean M. Wright (1979), a four-book series by Quinn Fawcett, and 2015's Mycroft Holmes, by Kareem Abdul-Jabbar and Anna Waterhouse. M. J. Trow has written a series of seventeen books using Inspector Lestrade as the central character, beginning with The Adventures of Inspector Lestrade in 1985.

Carole Nelson Douglas Irene Adler series is based on “the woman” from “A Scandal in Bohemia”, with the first book (1990's Good Night, Mr. Holmes) retelling that story from Adler's point of view. Martin Davies has written three novels where Baker Street housekeeper Mrs. Hudson is the protagonist.

Laurie R. King recreated Holmes in her Mary Russell series (beginning with 1994's The Beekeeper's Apprentice), set during the First World War and the 1920s. Her Holmes, semi-retired in Sussex, are stumbled upon by a teenaged American girl.

Recognizing a kindred spirit, he trains her as his apprentice and subsequently marries her. As of 2018, the series includes sixteen base novels and additional writings.

There have been a host of scholarly works dealing with Sherlock Holmes, some working within the bounds of the Great Game, and some written from the perspective that Holmes is a fictional character. In particular, there have been three major annotated editions of the complete series.

This two-volume set was ordered to fit Baring-Gould's preferred chronology, and was written from a Great Game perspective. The second was 1993's The Oxford Sherlock Holmes (general editor: Owen Dudley Edwards), a nine-volume set written in a straight scholarly manner.

The most recent is Leslie Linger's The New Annotated Sherlock Holmes (2004–05), a three-volume set that returns to a Great Game perspective. Poster for the 1899 play Sherlock Holmes by Conan Doyle and actor William Gillette Guinness World Records has listed Holmes as the most portrayed literary human character in film and television history, with more than 75 actors playing the part in over 250 productions.

The 1899 play Sherlock Holmes, by Conan Doyle and William Gillette, was a synthesis of several Conan Doyle stories. In addition to its popularity, the play is significant because it, rather than the original stories, introduced one of the key visual qualities commonly associated with Holmes today: his calabash pipe ; the play also formed the basis for Gillette's 1916 film, Sherlock Holmes.

In the early 1900s, H. A. Saints bury took over the role from Gillette for a tour of the play. Between this play and Conan Doyle's own stage adaptation of The Adventure of the Speckled Band “, Saints bury portrayed Holmes over 1,000 times.

Benedict Cumberbatch plays a modern version of the detective (with Martin Freeman as John Watson) in the BBC One TV series Sherlock, which premiered in 2010. In the series, created by Mark Gates and Steven Moat, the stories' original Victorian setting is replaced by present-day London, with Watson a (modern) Afghan war veteran.

Similarly, Elementary premiered on CBS in 2012, and ran until for seven seasons, until 2019. Set in contemporary New York, the series featured Jonny Lee Miller as Sherlock Holmes and Lucy Liu as a female Dr. Joan Watson.

With 24 episodes per season, by the end of season two Miller became the actor who had portrayed Sherlock Holmes the most in television and/or film. The 2018 television adaptation, Miss Sherlock, was a Japanese-language production, and the first adaptation with a woman (portrayed by Yukon Takashi) in the signature role.

The episodes were based in modern-day Tokyo, with many references to Conan Doyle's stories. Holmes has also appeared in video games, including the Sherlock Holmes series of eight main titles.

According to the publisher, Frog wares, the series has sold over seven million copies. The copyright for Conan Doyle's works expired in the United Kingdom, Canada, and Australia at the end of 1980, fifty years after Conan Doyle's death.

In the United Kingdom it was later revived, and expired again at the end of 2000. The author's works are now in the public domain in those countries.

In the United States, all works published before 1923 are in the public domain, but as ten Holmes stories were published after that date, the Conan Doyle estate maintained that the Holmes and Watson characters as a whole were still under copyright. On 14 February 2013, Leslie S. Linger (lawyer and editor of The New Annotated Sherlock Holmes) filed a declaratory judgement suit against the Conan Doyle estate asking the court to acknowledge that the characters of Holmes and Watson were a public domain in the U.S.

The court ruled in Linger's favor on 23 December, and the Seventh Circuit Court of Appeals affirmed its decision on 16 June 2014. The case was appealed to the U.S. Supreme Court, which declined to hear the case, letting the appeals court's ruling stand.

The stories still under copyright due to the ruling, as of that time, were those collected in TheCase-Bookof Sherlock Holmes other than “The Adventure of the Mazarin Stone” and The Problem of Thor Bridge “. The remaining ten Holmes stories were to enter the U.S. public domain between 1 January 2019 and 1 January 2023; since then, four of those ten have done so.

Though the United States court ruling and the passage of time has meant that most of the Holmes stories, along with their characters, were in the public domain in that country, in 2020 the Doyle estate legally challenged the use of Sherlock Holmes in the film Nola Holmes in a complaint filed in the United States. The Doyle estate alleged that the film depicts Holmes with personality traits that were only exhibited by the character in the stories still under copyright.

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^ A Study in Scarlet, The Adventure of Silver Blaze “, “The Adventure of the Priory School”, The Hound of the Baskerville, The Holcombe Valley Mystery ^ The Adventure of the Resident Patient “, The Hound of the Baskerville ^ The Rate Squires “, “The Man with the Twisted Lip” ^ Linger I, pp. 860-863 ^ Sherlock Homes inspired real life CSI”.

These “street Arabs” also appear briefly in A Study in Scarlet and “The Adventure of the Crooked Man”. “The Baker Street Irregulars and Billy The Page”.

“Ultra-Influencers: The Two British Fictional Victorians that Changed Japan”. The Sherlock Holmes Catalog of the Collection in the Bars and the Grill Room and in the Reconstruction of Part of the Living Room at 221 B Baker Street.

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^ Sherlock Holmes · University of Minnesota Libraries”. “Exploring the largest Sherlock Holmes archive in the world”.

^ “Largest ever collection of new Sherlock Holmes stories will raise money to restore Conan Doyle's house”. ^ “Enter the Lion: A Posthumous Memoir of Mycroft Holmes ".

“Review | Kareem Abdul-Jabbar returns to his other passion: Sherlock Holmes ". “Review: The Final Solution by Michael Charon”.

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Sherlock Holmes belongs to the public, U.S. court rules”. “January 1, 2021: Three Sherlock Holmes Stories Enter the Public Domain”.

“Conan Doyle Estate Sues Netflix Over Coming Movie About Sherlock Holmes Sister”. ' Nola Holmes Producers Blast Copyright Infringement Suit from Conan Doyle Estate”.

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In Bed with Sherlock Holmes : Sexual Elements in Conan Doyle's Stories. Holmes, Chemistry and the Royal Institution: A Survey of the Scientific Works of Sherlock Holmes and His Relationship with the Royal Institution of Great Britain.

The Bedside Companion to Sherlock Holmes. The Manichean Investigators: A Postcolonial and Cultural Rereading of the Sherlock Holmes and Bookish Lakshmi Stories.

' You Know My Method': A Juxtaposition of Charles S. Pace and Sherlock Holmes ". In Eco, Umberto ; Seek, Thomas (eds.).

Encyclopedia of Sherlock Holmes : A Complete Guide to the World of the Great Detective. Edgar Allan Poe: A to Z (Paperback ed.).

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4 www.findchips.com - https://www.findchips.com/search/mlf1005vr56jt000