In a poll conducted by the British Royal National Theater in 1998/99, it was voted the “most significant English language play of the 20th century”. Estrogen spent the previous night lying in a ditch and receiving a beating from some unnamed assailants.
The two men discuss a variety of issues, and it is revealed that they are waiting for a man named Godot. They pause in their journey, as Pizza engages Vladimir and Estrogen in conversation.
Lucky’s speech follows Pizza’s command: “Think!”, and is seen to contain, in a cryptic manner, meanings that support the underlying themes of the play. Vladimir and Estrogen decide that they will also leave, but they remain there as the curtain falls.
Pizza can’t recall having met Vladimir and Estrogen the previous night. They decide to leave, but again they remain as the curtain falls on the final act.
He once recalled that when Sir Ralph Richardson “wanted the low-down on Pizza, his home address and curriculum vitae, and seemed to make the forthcoming of this and similar information the condition of his condescending to illustrate the part of Vladimir ... When Beckett started writing he did not have a visual image of Vladimir and Estrogen.
When told by Vladimir that he should have been a poet, Estrogen says he was, gestures to his rags, and asks if it were not obvious. There are no physical descriptions of either of the two characters; however, the text indicates that Vladimir is possibly the heaviest of the pair.
Vladimir stands through most of the play whereas Estrogen sits down numerous times and even dozes off. Estrogen “belongs to the stone”, preoccupied with mundane things, what he can get to eat and how to ease his physical aches and pains; he is direct, intuitive.
Estrogen tells Vladimir about the colored maps of the Holy Land and that he planned to honeymoon by the Dead Sea ; it is his short-term memory that is poorest and points to the fact that he may, in fact, be suffering from Alzheimer's disease. Al Alvarez writes: “But perhaps Estrogen's forgetfulness is the cement binding their relationship together.
These characterizations, for some, represented the act of thinking or mental state (Vladimir) and physical things or the body (Estrogen). This is visually depicted by Vladimir's continuous attention to his hat and Estrogen to his boots.
While the two characters are temperamentally opposite, with their differing responses to a situation, they are both essential as demonstrated in the way Vladimir's metaphysical musings were balanced by Estrogen's physical demands. The above characterizations, particularly that which concerns their existential situation, are also demonstrated in one of the play's recurring themes, which is sleep.
There are two instances when Estrogen falls asleep in the play and has nightmares, about which he wanted to tell Vladimir when he woke. The latter refuses to hear it since he could not tolerate the way the dreamer cannot escape or act during each episode.
An interpretation noted the link between the two characters' experiences and the way they represent them: the impotence in Estrogen's nightmare and Vladimir's predicament of waiting as his companion sleeps. It is also said that sleep and impatience allow the spectators to distinguish between the two main characters, that sleep expresses Estrogen's focus on his sensations while Vladimir's restlessness shows his focus on his thoughts.
This particular aspect involving sleep is indicative of what some called a pattern of duality in the play. In the case of the protagonists, the duality involves the body and the mind, making the characters complementary.
Throughout the play the couple refer to each other by the pet names “Did” and “Logo”, although the boy addresses Vladimir as “Mister Albert”. Beckett originally intended to call Estrogen “Lévy” but when Pizza questions him he gives his name as “MacGregor, André” and also responds to Ca tulle in French or Catullus in the first Faber edition.
What's more, since the second act is a subtly different reprise of the first, he has written a play in which nothing happens, twice.” Mercier once questioned Beckett on the language used by the pair: “It seemed to me...he made Did and Logo sound as if they had earned PhDs.
Jean Martin, who originated the role of Lucky in Paris in 1953, spoke to a doctor named Martha Gautier, who was working at the Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital. Martin asked if she knew of a physiological reason that would explain Lucky’s voice as it was written in the text.
Gautier suggested Parkinson's disease, which, she said, “begins with a trembling, which gets more and more noticeable, until later the patient can no longer speak without the voice shaking”. It has been contended that Pizza and Lucky are simply Did and Logo writ large”, unbalanced as their relationship is.
Pizza credits Lucky with having given him all the culture, refinement, and ability to reason that he possesses. Pizza's “party piece” on the sky is a clear example: as his memory crumbles, he finds himself unable to continue under his own steam.
Little is learned about Pizza besides the fact that he is on his way to the fair to sell his slave, Lucky. His pipe is made by Knapp and Peterson, Dublin's best-known tobacconists (their slogan was “The thinking man's pipe”) which he refers to as a Brian but which Estrogen calls a dudeen emphasizing the differences in their social standing.
Lucky is the absolutely subservient slave of Pozzo, and he unquestioningly does his every bidding with “dog-like devotion”. Lucky speaks only once in the play, and it is in response to Pizza's order to “think” for Estrogen and Vladimir.
“In his translation ... Beckett struggled to retain the French atmosphere as much as possible, so that he delegated all the English names and places to Lucky, whose own name, he thought, suggested such a correlation”. The boy in Act I, a local lad, assures Vladimir that this is the first time he has seen him.
The boy in Act II also assures Vladimir that it was not he who called upon them the day before. “When Colin Duckworth asked Beckett point-blank whether Pizza was Godot, the author replied: 'No.
Deirdre Bear says that though “Beckett will never discuss the implications of the title”, she suggests two stories that both may have at least partially inspired it. The first is that because feet are a recurring theme in the play, Beckett has said the title was suggested to him by the slang French term for boot: Gordillo, goals “.
Unlike elsewhere in Beckett's work, no bicycle appears in this play, but Hugh Kenner in his essay “The Cartesian Centaur” reports that Beckett once, when asked about the meaning of Godot, mentioned “a veteran racing cyclist, bald, a 'stayer', recurrent place man in town-to-town and national championships, Christian name elusive, surname Godhead, pronounced, of course, no differently from Godot.” Waiting for Godot is clearly not about track cycling, but it is said that Beckett himself did wait for French cyclist Roger Godhead (1920–2000; a professional cyclist from 1943 to 1961), outside the velodrome in Roubaix.
Of the two boys who work for Godot only one appears safe from beatings, “Beckett said, only half-jokingly, that one of Estrogen's feet was saved”. Beckett himself said the emphasis should be on the first syllable, and that the North American pronunciation is a mistake.
Georges Orchards, Beckett's literary agent, and who represents Beckett's literary estate, has always pronounced Godot in the French manner, with equal emphasis on both syllables. Orchards checked with Beckett's nephew, Edward, who told him his uncle pronounced it that way as well.
He even contemplated at one point having a “faint shadow of bars on stage floor” but, in the end, decided against this level of what he called “exploitation”. In his 1975 Schiller Theater production, there are times when Did and Logo appear to bounce off something “like birds trapped in the strands of net”, in James Kowloon's description.
“Because the play is so stripped down, so elemental, it invites all kinds of social and political and religious interpretation”, wrote Normand Berlin in a tribute to the play in Autumn 1999, “with Beckett himself placed in different schools of thought, different movements and “isms”. The attempts to pin him down have not been successful, but the desire to do so is natural when we encounter a writer whose minimalist art reaches for bedrock reality.
He was not forthcoming with anything more than cryptic clues, however: “Peter Goldthorpe remembered asking him one day in a taxi what the play was really about: 'It's all symbiosis, Peter; it's symbiosis,' answered Beckett.” Over the years, Beckett clearly realized that the greater part of Godot's success came down to the fact that it was open to a variety of readings and that this was not necessarily a bad thing.
Vladimir and Estrogen are often played with Irish accents, as in the Beckett on Film project. This, some feel, is an inevitable consequence of Beckett's rhythms and phraseology, but it is not stipulated in the text.
At any rate, they are not of English stock: at one point early in the play, Estrogen mocks the English pronunciation of “calm” and has fun with “the story of the Englishman in the brothel”. Freudian “Bernard Duke develops a triadic theory in Did, Logo and the absent Godot, based on Sigmund Freud's Trinidadian description of the psyche in The Ego and the I'd (1923) and the usage of domestic techniques.
Duke finally sees Beckett's play as a metaphor for the futility of man's existence when salvation is expected from an external entity, and the self is denied introspection.” Jungian “The four archetypal personalities or the four aspects of the soul are grouped in two pairs: the ego and the shadow, the persona and the soul's image (animus or anima).
Lucky, the shadow, serves as the polar opposite of the egocentric Pizza, prototype of prosperous mediocrity, who incessantly controls and persecutes his subordinate, thus symbolizing the oppression of the unconscious shadow by the despotic ego. Lucky's monologue in Act I appears as a manifestation of a stream of repressed unconsciousness, as he is allowed to “think” for his master.
This prompts us to identify him with the anima, the feminine image of Vladimir's soul. It explains Estrogen's propensity for poetry, his sensitivity and dreams, his irrational moods.
Vladimir appears as the complementary masculine principle, or perhaps the rational persona of the contemplative type.” Existential Broadly speaking, existentialists hold that there are certain fundamental questions that all human beings must come to terms with if they are to take their subjective existences seriously and with intrinsic value.
By and large, the theories of existentialism assert that conscious reality is very complex and without an “objective” or universally known value: the individual must create value by affirming it and living it, not by simply talking about it or philosophizing it in the mind. Absurdist itself is a branch of the traditional assertions of existentialism, pioneered by Siren Kierkegaard, and posits that, while inherent meaning might very well exist in the universe, human beings are incapable of finding it due to some form of mental or philosophical limitation.
The boy (or a pair of boys) may be seen to represent meekness and hope before compassion is consciously excluded by an evolving personality and character, and in which case may be the youthful Pizza and Lucky. In this interpretation, there is the irony that only by changing their hearts to be compassionate can the characters fixed to the tree move on and cease to have to wait for Godot.
The boy from Act One mentions that he and his brother mind Godot's sheep and goats. Much can be read into Beckett's inclusion of the story of the two thieves from Luke 23:39–43 and the ensuing discussion of repentance.
As Cronin argues, these biblical references “may be ironic or even sarcastic “. “In answer to a defense counsel question in 1937 (during the libel action brought by his uncle against Oliver St. John Gog arty) whether he was a Christian, Jew or atheist, Beckett replied, 'None of the three' “.
Though the sexuality of Vladimir and Estrogen is not always considered by critics, some see the two vagabonds as an aging homosexual couple, who are worn out, with broken spirits, impotent and not engaging sexually any longer. Peter Box all points out that the play features two characters who seem to have shared life together for years; they quarrel, embrace, and are mutually dependent.
Vladimir and Estrogen consider hanging themselves, as a desperate way to achieve at least one final erection. Pizza is a stout man, who wields a whip and holds a rope around Lucky's neck.
Lucky's long speech is a torrent of broken ideas and speculations regarding man, sex, God, and time. Norman Mailer wonders if Beckett might be restating the sexual and moral basis of Christianity, that life and strength is found in an adoration of those in the lower depths where God is concealed.
He famously objected when, in the 1980s, several women's acting companies began to stage the play. “Women don't have prostates “, said Beckett, a reference to the fact that Vladimir frequently has to leave the stage to urinate.
This ban was short-lived, however: in 1991 (two years after Beckett's death), Judge Baguette Le Foyer de Costil ruled that productions with female casts would not cause excessive damage to Beckett's legacy, and allowed the play to be duly performed by the all-female cast of the Brut DE Benton Theater Company at the prestigious Avignon Festival. The Italian Pontevedra Theater Foundation won a similar claim in 2006 when it cast two actresses in the roles of Vladimir and Estrogen, albeit in the characters' traditional roles as men.
As for wanting to find in all that a broader, loftier meaning to carry away from the performance, along with the program and the Eskimo pie, I cannot see the point of it. But it must be possible ... Estrogen, Vladimir, Pizza, Lucky, their time and their space, I was able to know them a little, but far from the need to understand.
The play was first published in September 1952 by Les Editions DE Minuit and released on 17 October 1952 in advance of the first full theatrical performance; only 2500 copies were printed of this first edition. On 4 January 1953, “thirty reviewers came to the general of En attendant Godot before the public opening ...
Some dozen reviews in daily newspapers range from tolerant to enthusiastic ... Reviews in the weeklies longer and more fervent; moreover, they appeared in time to lure spectators to that first thirty-day run” which began on 5 January 1953 at the Theater de Babylone, Paris.
Early public performances were not, however, without incident: during one performance “the curtain had to be brought down after Lucky's monologue as twenty, well-dressed, but disgruntled spectators whistled and hooted derisively ... One of the protesters wrote a vituperative letter dated 2 February 1953 to Le Monde.” The cast comprised Pierre La tour (Estrogen), Lucien Hamburg (Vladimir), Jean Martin (Lucky) and Roger Blind (Pizza).
In 1957, four years after its world premiere, Waiting for Godot was staged for one night only at the San Quentin State Prison in California. Herbert Beau with the San Francisco Actor's Workshop directed the production.
Beckett later gave Rick Clutches, a former prisoner from San Quentin, financial and moral support over a period of many years. Clutches played Vladimir in two productions in the former Gallows room of the San Quentin California State Prison, which had been converted into a 65-seat theater and, like the German prisoner before him, went on to work on a variety of Beckett's plays after his release.
Clutches said, “The thing that everyone in San Quentin understood about Beckett, while the rest of the world had trouble catching up, was what it meant to be in the face of it.” The 1953 Lüttringhausen and 1957 San Quentin Prison productions of Waiting for Godot were the subject of the 2010 documentary film The Impossible Itself.
The English-language premiere was on 3 August 1955 at the Arts Theater, London, directed by the 24-year-old Peter Hall. During an early rehearsal Hall told the cast “I haven't really the foggiest idea what some of it means ...
A number of biographical details were removed, all adding to a general “happening” of the text which he continued to trim for the rest of his life. In the 1950s, theater was strictly censored in the UK, to Beckett's amazement since he thought it a bastion of free speech.
The Lord Chamberlain insisted that the word erection be removed, 'Factor' became 'Poor' and Mrs Gonzo had warts instead of clap “. Lady Dorothy Hewitt wrote to the Lord Chamberlain, saying: “One of the many themes running through the play is the desire of two old tramps continually to relieve themselves.
The actor Peter Bull, who played Pizza, recalls the reaction of that first night audience: Waves of hostility came whirling over the footlights, and the mass exodus, which was to form such a feature of the run of the piece, started quite soon after the curtain had risen.
Beckett was always grateful to the two reviewers for their support ... which more or less transformed the play overnight into the rage of London.” “At the end of the year, the Evening Standard Drama Awards were held for the first time ... Feelings ran high and the opposition, led by Sir Malcolm Sargent, threatened to resign if Godot won .
Although not his favorite amongst his plays, Waiting for Godot was the work which brought Beckett fame and financial stability and as such it always held a special place in his affections. “When the manuscript and rare books' dealer, Henry Winning, asked him if he could sell the original French manuscript for him, Beckett replied: 'Rightly or wrongly have decided not to let Godot go yet.
On 30 April 2009, a production with Sir Ian McAllen as Estrogen and Sir Patrick Stewart as Vladimir, opened at the Haymarket Theater in London's West End. Their performances received critical acclaim, and were the subject of an eight-part documentary series called Heartland, which was produced by Sky Arts.
The production was revived at the same theater in January 2010 for 11 weeks and, in 2010 toured internationally, with Roger Sees replacing Stewart as Vladimir. It received rave reviews, and was a huge success for the Roundabout Theater.
Beckett received numerous requests to adapt Waiting for Godot for film and television. The author, however, resisted these offers, except for occasional approval out of friendship or sympathy for the person making the request.
This was the case when he agreed to some televised productions in his lifetime (including a 1961 American telecast with Zero Hostel as Estrogen and Burgess Meredith as Vladimir that New York Times theater critic Alvin Klein describes as having “left critics bewildered and is now a classic”). The BBC broadcast a production of Waiting for Godot on 26 June 1961, a version for radio having already been transmitted on 25 April 1960.
Beckett watched the program with a few close friends in Peter Goldthorpe's Chelsea flat. My play was written for small men locked in a big space.
One analysis argued that Beckett's opposition to alterations and creative adaptations stem from his abiding concern with audience reaction rather than proprietary rights over a text being performed. For instance, Andre Angel adapted the play in 1979 and was produced in Strasbourg.
The first four involved Logo, Did, Lucky, and Pizza while the rest were divided into three pairs: two tramps, a pair of grim heterosexuals, and a bride raped by her groom. A similar approach was employed by Tamika Fujiyama who directed his own adaptation of the play in Tokyo.
Directed by Audi Azana, the English script was based on Beckett's original French manuscript of En attendant Godot (the new title being an alternate translation of the French) prior to censorship from British publishing houses in the 1950s, as well as adaptation to the stage. The first American tour was directed by Alan Schneider and produced by Michael Member.
Initially, the play was set to be shown in Washington and Philadelphia. However, low advanced sales forced the play to be performed in Miami for two weeks, where the audience was made up of vacationers.
It was first described as “the laugh sensation of two continents” in the advanced publication done by Member in the local newspapers. However, when it was shown to the audience, theatergoers would leave after the first act, describing it as a play where “nothing happens”, and taxi drivers would wait in front of the theater to take them home.
Herbert Bergson took over as director and E. G. Marshall replaced Tom Ewell as Vladimir. This prompted Beckett to issue a rare statement, stating that the reaction was based on a misconception of the play.
Brooks Atkinson of The New York Times praised Lair for his performance as Estrogen. After the New York showing, the play was taken over by The Actors Workshop of San Francisco in 1957.
The most successful showing was in November 1957 at the San Quentin prison, where the play had a profound impact on the inmates and spurred them to start a drama group in the prison. In 1958, the play, produced by the San Francisco Actors Workshop, would be chosen to go to Brussels for the 1958 World's Fair.
In the preface to this play Racine writes: “All creativity consists in making something out of nothing.” Beckett was an avid scholar of the 17th-century playwright and lectured on him during his time at Trinity.
“Essential to the static quality of a Racine play is the pairing of characters to talk at length to each other.” The title character of Balzac's 1851 play Mercedes is waiting for financial salvation from his never-seen business partner, Godhead.
Although Beckett was familiar with Balzac's prose, he insisted that he learned of the play after finishing Waiting for Godot. Regard the protagonists in Beckett's novel Mercier and Camera as prototypes of Vladimir and Estrogen.
“If you want to find the origins of Godot “, he told Colin Duckworth once, “look at Murphy.” Here we see the agonized protagonist yearning for self-knowledge, or at least complete freedom of thought at any cost, and the dichotomy and interaction of mind and body.
Mercier and Camera wander aimlessly about a boggy, rain-soaked island that, although not explicitly named, is Beckett's native Ireland. They speak convoluted dialogues similar to Vladimir and Estrogen's, joke about the weather and chat in pubs, while the purpose of their odyssey is never made clear.
The 1991 West End production (see above), inspired Risk May all and Adrian Edmondson to develop Bottom, which May all described as a “cruder cousin” to Godot. An unauthorized sequel was written by Moral Platonic in 1966: Good JE dorsal (Godot Arrived).
It was translated from the Serbian into German (Godot is genome) and French. The playwright presents Godot as a baker who ends up being condemned to death by the four main characters.
“ Alan Titley's Irish-language sequel Again Godot (Godot Arrives) was written for Oireachtas Na Goalie in 1987 and produced as a radio play by RTE and on stage in 1990 at the Peacock Theater, Dublin directed by Tomas Mac Anna. In the late 1990s an unauthorized sequel was written by Daniel Carbon entitled Godot Arrives.
Martin Boiler finds similarities to Title's work, of which Carbon was unaware. A radical transformation was written by Bernard Part, performed at Theater National de Strasbourg in 1979–1980: ILS ancient obscure sous la newt solitaire (d'acres 'En attendant Godot DE Samuel Beckett).
“This space, marked by diffusion, and therefore quite unlike traditional concentration of dramatic space, was animated, not by four actors and the brief appearance of a fifth one (as in Beckett's play), but by ten actors. Gujarati playwright Labhshankar Dhaka, along with Sub hash Shah, wrote a play EK Under ANE Jaunt based on Godot in 1966.
In 1990, French synthesizer artist Jean-Michel Barre released the music album Waiting For Cousteau, which was dedicated to his friend, scientist and environmentalist Jacques Cousteau. In 1992 Sesame Street had a short video in their segment Monster piece Theater entitled Waiting for Elmo “.
Telly and Grover wait by a bare tree for Elmo to appear. Elmo never appears, and the tree declares it does not understand the play before leaving, prompting Telly and Grover to chase after it.
The film's title in turn was played on in The Simpsons 2015 episode Waiting for Huffman “. The play is mentioned in Kevin Smith's 1997 film Chasing Amy, when comic book creator Holden McNeil (played by Ben Affleck) responds to a dimwitted fan's referral of his characters as Bill & Ted meets Church & Chong “, saying that he prefers to think of them as a modern-day Rosencrantz and Guildenstern meet Vladimir and Estrogen”, to the fan's consternation.
Godot is the name of a prosecutor in the 2004 video game Phoenix Wright: Ace Attorney Trials and Tribulations. Several programs on the Adult Swim network have drawn inspiration from the works of Samuel Beckett.
Eric Andre, host and creator of The Eric Andre Show on Adult Swim, has explicitly acknowledged the thematic influence of Waiting for Godot on the show's surrealist format. The video game engine, Godot, was named after the titled play due its nature of never-ending wishes of adding new features in the engine, which in turn becomes closer to an exhaustive product, but in the end it never will due to unfulfilled promises.
A sketch in March 2017 on The Late Show with Stephen Colbert, Waiting for Godot's Obamacare Replacement”, Colbert and Patrick Stewart satirized the Trump administration's failure to implement their announced repeal and replace of Obamacare. The fourteenth-season finale of It's Always Sunny in Philadelphia, titled Waiting for Big Mo”, is heavily based on the play.
“Anthony Page of Waiting for Godot Teaches Us How to Pronounce Its Title”. Archived 4 August 2007 at the Payback Machine in The Massachusetts Review, Autumn 1999 ^ Waiting for Godot voted the best modern play in English” by David Lister, The Independent, 18 October 1998 ^ Ales Sears (2000).
“Lucky's Speech in Beckett's Waiting for Godot : A Punctuated Sense-Line Arrangement”. Quoted in Kowloon, J., Damned to Fame: The Life of Samuel Beckett (London: Bloomsbury, 1996), p. 412 ^ Quoted in Le Novel Observation (26 September 1981) and referenced in Cohn, R., From Desire to Godot (London: Calder Publications; New York: River run Press), 1998, p. 150 ^ Cronin, A., Samuel Beckett The Last Modernist (London: Flamingo, 1997), p. 382 ^ Mast, Gerald, The Comic Mind: Comedy and the Movies.
^ See Brown, V., Yesterday's Deformities: A Discussion of the Role of Memory and Discourse in the Plays of Samuel Beckett, pp. ^ Alvarez, A. Beckett 2nd Edition (London: Fontana Press, 1992) ^ Grow, M., No Symbol Where None Intended: A Study of Symbolism and Allusion in Samuel Beckett's Waiting for Godot ^ Luck, Barbara (1979).
^ Fletcher, J., “The Arrival of Godot in The Modern Language Review, Vol. “Introduction” to En attendant Godot (London: George Harry, 1966), pp.
47, 49 ^ Jean Martin on the world premiere of En attendant Godot in Kowloon, James and Elizabeth, (Eds.) Quoted in Bear 1990, p. 407 ^ Friedman, N., Godot and Gestalt: The Meaning of Meaningless” in The American Journal of Psychoanalysis 49(3) p. 277 ^ Kalb, J., Beckett in Performance (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989), p. 175 ^ Mercier, V., Beckett/Beckett (London: Souvenir Press, 1990), p. 53 ^ Barney Russet to Deirdre Bear, 29 March 1974.
Referenced in Bear 1990, p. 464 ^ Colin Duckworth's introduction to En attendant Godot (London: George G Harry & Co, 1966), LX. Quoted in Cohn, R., From Desire to Godot (London: Calder Publications; New York: River run Press, 1998), p. 150 ^ Interview with Peter Goldthorpe, 18 February 1994.
“Samuel Beckett Meets Buster Keaton: Godhead, Film, and New York”. Examples located 16:05–16:15 on YouTube ^ Cronin, A., Samuel Beckett The Last Modernist (London: Flamingo, 1997), p. 60 ^ Hampton, W., Theater Review: “Celebrating With Waiting for Godot ", The New York Times, 04 Oct 1995 ^ Elizabeth Barry.
^ Genes, G., “Memories of Samuel Beckett in the Rehearsals for Endgame, 1967” in Bengali, L., (Ed.) Women in Beckett: Performance and Critical Perspectives (Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1992), p x ^ The game of changing hats is an echo of the Marx Brothers film Duck Soup, which features almost exactly the same headgear-swapping action.
See Kowloon, J., Damned to Fame: The Life of Samuel Beckett (London: Bloomsbury, 1996), p. 609. Quoted in Kowloon, J., Damned to Fame: The Life of Samuel Beckett (London: Bloomsbury, 1996), pp.
Quoted in Kowloon, J., Damned to Fame: The Life of Samuel Beckett (London: Bloomsbury, 1996), p. 416. Quoted in Kowloon, J., Damned to Fame: The Life of Samuel Beckett (London: Bloomsbury, 1996), pp.
^ Quoted in As mus, W., 'Beckett directs Godot in Theater Quarterly, Vol V, No 19, 1975, pp. Quoted in Kowloon, J., Damned to Fame: The Life of Samuel Beckett (London: Bloomsbury, 1996), p. 607.
^ Kowloon, James, Damned to Fame: The Life of Samuel Beckett (London: Bloomsbury, 1996), pp. 638, 639 ^ Peter Hall in The Guardian, 4 January 2003 Archived 18 May 2007 at the Payback Machine ^ Haskell, G., What's On' London, 2 – 9 July 1997.
See also Carter, S., 'Estrogen's Ancient Wound: A Note on Waiting for Godot in Journal of Beckett Studies 6.1, p. 130. ^ On the other hand, Did only learns of this in asking the boy's brother how Godot treats him, which may in itself be seen as a show of compassion.
^ Duckworth, C., Angels of Darkness: Dramatic Effect in Samuel Beckett with Special Reference to Eugène Ionesco (London: Allen, 1972), p. 18. ^ Kowloon, James, Damned to Fame: The Life of Samuel Beckett (London: Bloomsbury, 1996), p. 279.
Women in Beckett: Performance and Critical Perspectives (Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1992), p. ×. ^ Kowloon, James, Damned to Fame: The Life of Samuel Beckett (London: Bloomsbury, 1996), p. 610.
^ “Beckett estate fails to stop women waiting for Godot in The Guardian, 4 February 2006. ^ Sacco Festival of Alternative Israeli Theater, 1995 Archive ^ Kowloon, James, Damned to Fame: The Life of Samuel Beckett (London: Bloomsbury, 1996), pp.
386, 394 ^ Ruby Cohn on the Godot Circle in Kowloon, James and Elizabeth, (Eds.) Printer's Notice at rear of the first edition states “achieve d'improper SUR LES presses DE l'Imprimis habit an Arenas (Creche), en September mil Nerf cent piquant DEU.
Samuel Beckett: An Exhibition Held at Reading University Library, May to July 1971. ^ Cohn, Ruby, From Desire to Godot (London: Calder Publications; New York: River run Press), 1998, pp.
153, 157 ^ Kowloon, James, Damned to Fame: The Life of Samuel Beckett (London: Bloomsbury, 1996), pp. Referenced in Kowloon, James, Damned to Fame: The Life of Samuel Beckett (London: Bloomsbury, 1996), pp.
Quoted in Kowloon, J., Damned to Fame: The Life of Samuel Beckett (London: Bloomsbury, 1996), p. 431 ^ a b Kowloon, James, Damned to Fame: The Life of Samuel Beckett (London: Bloomsbury, 1996), pp. 410, 411 ^ “Manuscript annotations by Samuel Beckett in a copy of Waiting for Godot for a production by the San Quentin Drama Workshop”.
“San Quentin and Samuel Beckett: An Interview with Rick Clutches”. ^ A farmer in Bouillon, the village where Beckett fled during World War II; he never worked for the Connelly, though he used to visit and purchase eggs and wine there.
Quoted in Kowloon, J., Damned to Fame: The Life of Samuel Beckett (London: Bloomsbury, 1996), p. 414 ^ Kowloon, James, Damned to Fame: The Life of Samuel Beckett (London: Bloomsbury, 1996), p. 415 ^ Peter Hall looks back at the original Godot Archived 6 October 2007 at the Payback Machine, Samuel-Beckett.net ^ Brooks Atkinson (20 April 1956). ^ a b c d “Two blokes walked on to a stage” by Sharon Verges, The Australian, 9 November 2013 ^ SB to Henry Winning, 1 January 1965 (St Louis).
Quoted in Kowloon, J., Damned to Fame: The Life of Samuel Beckett (London: Bloomsbury, 1996), p. 527 ^ Henry, William A., III in Time, Theater: Clowning Around with a Classic Waiting for Godot ^ Rich, Frank. Godot : The Timeless Relationship of 2 Interdependent Souls ^ From the program to the production.
“Review: A Waiting for Godot as Comically Futile as a Mooney Tune”. Quoted in Kowloon, J., Damned to Fame: The Life of Samuel Beckett (London: Bloomsbury, 1996), p. 545 ^ Interview with Peter Goldthorpe, 18 February 1994.
Referenced in Kowloon, J., Damned to Fame: The Life of Samuel Beckett (London: Bloomsbury, 1996), pp. The Grove Companion to Samuel Beckett : A Reader's Guide to His Works, Life, and Thought (1st ed.).
Tom Stoppard: Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are dead, Jumpers, Travesties, Arcadia. “Risk May all: Comedian and actor who helped revolutionize the British comedy scene as the punk poet and Cliff Richard fan, Rick”.
^ Much, A. C., Quoting from Godot : trends in contemporary French theater Archived 13 May 2008 at the Payback Machine in Journal of Beckett Studies, No 9, Spring 1983 ^ Law, Moran (1 January 2006). ^ Hilarious Waiting for Huffman is bound to ring true with viewers” by Chris Hicks, Desert News, 14 March 1997 ^ “Smart Amy Captures Essence of a Good Romantic Comedy” by Kevin Thomas, Los Angeles Times, 11 April 1997 ^ P. J. Murphy; Nick Patrick, eds.