Domestic political pressures on national leaders, hard-line faction increase power in times of crisisrealpolitik tactics most likely to be employed in crisis. Presence of rivalry increases chance of crisis escalating to war.
Domestic insecurity/vulnerability of elites promotes militant postures and taking of riskscreation of crises and escalation to war. Int'l political instability and ethno-religious composition important sometimes; internal instabilityperception of elite vulnerability, perceptions of windows of vulnerability and opportunity, motivation for diversionary wars or kick-em-while-they're down wars.
role transformations, status disequilibrium, changes in perceived degree of security, increased systemic uncertainty. Power transitions can set of conflict over proper distribution of preside and status WI system as well as conflict over the proper distribution of political/military, economic power.
1) Power shifts2) Critical points in cycle of relative power3) Hegemonic decline4) Systemic reconcentration of power5) Regional concentration of power6) Alliance polarization (systemic level) changes in distribution of capabilities, status, roles create fears of future.
Morality = product of power, so theories of social morality = product of dominant group within community and current theories of IR morality speak to Anglo-Saxon supremacy, as “monopolists of IR morality”- Realist critique of harmony of interests: doctrine of harmony of interests assumed by prosperous privileged class, dominant voices in community that identify personal interests with the state's. When global competition replaced by single Power market domination, conceptions of IR political and economic morality became chaotic: assurance that Power promotes “collective security” but only furthers own interests and calls opposing groups “disturbers of the peace “.- Limitations of realism”: realism not enough of an ideological structure, b/c excludes finite goal, emotional appeal, a right of moral judgement and grounds for action.
It also precludes moral judgement which is problematic and explains why politicians often hide realist goals behind ideology when appealing to the public. Need for utopian element driving people together (in addition to awareness of realist conditions).-Military power defines ratio of power in international relations, diplomacy is “potential war and main drive of IR, but war is seen as defensive primarily, even when it is aggressive (expansionism/colonialism seen as protecting yourself from comparatively stronger colonial powers).
Geoffrey Blaine, “Power, Culprits, and Arms”(Causes of War and Peace)CONSTRUCTIVIST PERSPECTIVE Therefore, war is a dispute about the measurement of the bargaining power each side believes they have to tilt the Bop in their favor.
The idea of war is propagated through dangerous conceptions of what manliness and strength are. If we change this, we can alter our perceptions of war and destroy this defective institution which we have unfortunately come to accept.
Richard Ned Le bow, “Spirit, Standing, and Honor”(Causes of War and Peace) Advocates for a pacific federation and the spread of democracy, says the human spirit can be managed, and we can mitigate war and solve problems without violence.
War, even when victorious, cans no longer achieve those aims for which people strive.” We don't need to capture territory to fill our treasuries, we can just trade well, so he agrees with Kant in regard to the pacifying effect of commerce.
Geoffrey Blaine, “Paradise is a Bazaar”(Causes of War and Peace) Argues against Kant and Manchester Creed that free trade, cultural exchange, and technology that links people can lead to peace.
Joseph Schumpeter, “Imperialism and Capitalism”(Causes of War and Peace) Says that economic interdependence can actually breed dependence and fear among nations, not lead to peace.
Richard Rosecrans, “Trade and Power”(Causes of War and Peace) Opposite of Waltz, says that interference is good, makes colonialism redundant.
If the relative political power of men and women were reversed, would the incidence of war and peace change? American jurist and politician who served as the chief justice of the U.S. Supreme Court (1801-1835) and helped establish the practice of judicial review.
A Shoshone Indian woman whose language skills and knowledge of geography helped Lewis and Clark on their expedition. Act passed by Congress in 1807 prohibiting American ships from leaving for any foreign port.
“The Prophet”; Shawnee, along with his brother, unified many Indian tribes in a last ditch battle with the settlers; allied with the British. -Shawnee leader who attempted to organize an Indian confederacy to prevent the loss of additional territory to American settlers.
They had a strong sense of nationalism, and they wanted to take over British land in North America and expand. A name for President Monroe's two terms, a period of strong nationalism, economic growth, and territorial expansion.